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Page 1

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Understand the arrangement, movement and energy of the particles in each of the three
states of matter: solid, liquid and gas

Have a fixed shape
Particles are vibrating on the spot

Can flow as the particles can move around one another
Takes the shape of the container it…

Page 2

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Describe the changes in arrangement, movement and energy of particles during these


Describe simple experiments leading to the idea of the small size of particles and their
movement including:

i. Dilution of coloured solutions

Dilution of CuSO4 solution

ii. Diffusion experiments
Diffusion is the movement of particles from…

Page 3

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Understand the terms atom and molecule
A molecule

Is a particle of matter composed of two or more atoms held together in a particular arrangement by strong
chemical bonds
Molecules have a neutral electrical charge that is generally stable. Examples of molecules include molecules of
water (HO) and oxygen…

Page 4

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Describe techniques for the separation of mixtures, including simple distillation, fractional
distillation, filtration, crystallisation and paper chromatography
o Quick method used to separate a mixture of a liquid and a heavier solid
o Allows the solid to sink and settle before pouring out the liquid
o Cannot be used…

Page 5

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The solution has to be heated to get rid of some water
This makes the solution concentrated
When the solution cools, the solvent can no longer hold as much solute
The excess solute will be separated out as crystals
o Slow evaporation of solution at room temperature:
At room temperature,…

Page 6

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Fractional Distillation
o Is used to separate miscible liquids
o For the separation to work, the liquids in the mixture should have a difference of 10°C in their boiling
o The mixture will be heated
o The liquid with the lower boiling point will evaporate, rise up the fractionating…

Page 7

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o The movement of each substance in the mixture depends on:
The solubility of the substance in the solvent
The substance moves with the solvent easily if the substance is very soluble in the
The absorption of the substance on the filter paper
Some solids are able to attract…

Page 8

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Understand the terms atomic number, mass number, isotopes and relative atomic mass
The atomic number

Is the number of protons in the atom, also called proton number; it is the smaller of the two numbers shown in
most periodic tables
The mass number or atomic mass

Is the number…

Page 9

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Understand that the Periodic Table is an arrangement of elements in order of atomic
The Periodic Table

The periodic table is an arrangement of elements in order of increasing atomic number. All metals are on the left
hand side of the step ladder and all non-metals are on the…

Page 10

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Understand the use of the term mole to represent the amount of substance
The term `mole' is used to express amounts in chemistry
One `mole' of a substance is its relative atomic mass, or relative formula mass, in grams
Ar (C) = 12
Mr (C) = 12
Mass of one…


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