Chemistry Double Science Notes With Specification

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  • Created on: 29-05-13 18:02
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Understand the arrangement, movement and energy of the particles in each of the three
states of matter: solid, liquid and gas
Solid
Have a fixed shape
Particles are vibrating on the spot
Liquid
Can flow as the particles can move around one another
Takes the shape of the container it is in
Gas
Move rapidly and are independent of one another, colliding with each other and with the walls of the container
Diffuse rapidly and exert pressure on the objects they collide with
Is much less dense than either the solid or the liquid
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Describe how the inter-conversion of solids, liquids and gases are achieved and recall the
names used for these inter-conversions
Evaporation: conversion from liquid to gas at room temperature
Boiling: conversion from liquid to gas at boiling point
Sublimation: conversion of a solid to a gas or vice versa without passing through the liquid phrase
E.g. iodine, naphthalene and solid carbon dioxide (dry ice)
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Describe the changes in arrangement, movement and energy of particles during these
inter-conversions.
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Describe simple experiments leading to the idea of the small size of particles and their
movement including:
i. Dilution of coloured solutions
Dilution of CuSO4 solution
ii. Diffusion experiments
Diffusion is the movement of particles from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration.…read more

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Understand the terms atom and molecule
A molecule
Is a particle of matter composed of two or more atoms held together in a particular arrangement by strong
chemical bonds
Molecules have a neutral electrical charge that is generally stable.…read more

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Describe techniques for the separation of mixtures, including simple distillation, fractional
distillation, filtration, crystallisation and paper chromatography
Decantation:
o Quick method used to separate a mixture of a liquid and a heavier solid
o Allows the solid to sink and settle before pouring out the liquid
o Cannot be used with lighter solids
o Example:
Separating sand and water
Filtration:
o Method used to separate suspensions
o Mixture is poured into a funnel fitted with a piece of filter paper
o Tiny holes in filter…read more

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The solution has to be heated to get rid of some water
This makes the solution concentrated
When the solution cools, the solvent can no longer hold as much solute
The excess solute will be separated out as crystals
o Slow evaporation of solution at room temperature:
At room temperature, the solvent will still evaporate
As more solvent evaporates, the solution becomes more concentrated
After the solution is saturated, excess solutes will form crystals
The longer the crystals take to form, the larger they will…read more

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Fractional Distillation
o Is used to separate miscible liquids
o For the separation to work, the liquids in the mixture should have a difference of 10°C in their boiling
points
o The mixture will be heated
o The liquid with the lower boiling point will evaporate, rise up the fractionating column and enter the
condenser.…read more

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The movement of each substance in the mixture depends on:
The solubility of the substance in the solvent
The substance moves with the solvent easily if the substance is very soluble in the
solvent
The absorption of the substance on the filter paper
Some solids are able to attract other substances strongly and hold them on their
surfaces
o This is called adsorption
The substances will not move with the solvent easily if the substance in the mixture is
absorbed strongly by the filter paper…read more

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Understand the terms atomic number, mass number, isotopes and relative atomic mass
(Ar)
The atomic number
Is the number of protons in the atom, also called proton number; it is the smaller of the two numbers shown in
most periodic tables
The mass number or atomic mass
Is the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom; it is the bigger number of the two numbers
shown in most periodic tables
Isotopes
Atoms of the same element which have the same number…read more

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Understand that the Periodic Table is an arrangement of elements in order of atomic
number
The Periodic Table
The periodic table is an arrangement of elements in order of increasing atomic number.…read more

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Understand the use of the term mole to represent the amount of substance
The term `mole' is used to express amounts in chemistry
One `mole' of a substance is its relative atomic mass, or relative formula mass, in grams
Ar (C) = 12
Mr (C) = 12
Mass of one mole of carbon is 12 g
Mass of two moles of carbon is 24g
Mass of one mole of a compound = Mr (g)
Avogadro's Number
One mole of any substance has 6.…read more

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