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Chemistry revision notes
In the 19th century, chemists were finding new elements almost every year
John Dalton from Manchester arranged the elements in order of their mass; he
published a book about this.
In 1863 John Newlands built on Dalton's ideas with his law of octaves. He…

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Transition metals ­ This group contains the elements that most people think of
when the word metal is mentioned. Like iron copper silver and gold. These metals are
not usually very reactive; some like silver and gold are so unreactive that they're
called noble metals.
Non metals-…

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The halogens are a group of poisonous non metals which all have coloured vapours.
The halogens all look different. They all have covalent bonds.
Fluorine is a very reactive poisonous, pale yellow gas
Chlorine is a reactive, poisonous dense green gas which can be identified using damp…

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Brass is a combination of copper and zinc and cupro-nickel is a very hard alloy of
copper and nickel which is used to make the coins for our currency.
Many of the transition metals to form coloured compounds. We use coloured ions
of the transition elements in…

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alkali have reacted completely is called the end point of the reaction. We show this
by using a chemical indicator.
The pH of a solution where it is neither alkali nor acid is 7. If the acid in a titration
reaction reacts completely with a weak alkali…

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This is measured in grams of solute per 100 grams of solver at a particular
temperature. Solubility often increases as temperature increases.
A saturated solution is one in which as much solute possible has been dissolved until
the solution becomes saturated again, as a hot saturated solution…

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Soft water does not contain dissolved substances that produce scum or scale.
Softening hard water is often useful in industry as it can save a lot of money.
A method used to soften water is using washing soda which adds CO32- to produced
CaCO3. This reaction is…

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Because energy has to be supplied to break chemical bonds, breaking bonds in an
endothermic reaction and energy is taken from the surroundings
But when new bonds are formed then energy is released, this is exothermic.
Energy level diagrams show us the relative amounts of energy contained…

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Some metal ions form coloured precipitates with Sodium hydroxide
Copper produces blue precipitates
Iron (II) produces dirty green precipitates
Iron (III) produces reddish brown precipitates
Sodium hydroxide has also been known to test for ammonium ions in an unknown
substance because it usually reacts to form ammonia…

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Find the empirical formula by finding the ratio.



Instruments are used in various industries to identify, measure and mix different
compounds.
Analysis is and identification is important for healthcare for example, dialysis
machines can produce high amounts of aluminium which can be very dangerous so
the water…

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