Chemistry AQA AS Unit 1 Alkanes

Made these notes for my year 12 summer exam to revise and read over. There are spelling mistakes in most of my files but due to the busy exam schedule I had no time to correct them (sorry).

Most files have more information than what is needed but I feel it helps you feel more confident walking into the exam if you have a greater knowledge background and may help when having to apply knowledge to questions. Good luck :)

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  • Created by: Chelcie
  • Created on: 02-09-13 12:59
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Alkanes
General formula:
CnH2n+2

Unbranched, branched or ringed.

Polarity:
Almost non-polar because of similar electronegativities.
Weak V.D.W. forces.

Boiling points:
As the chain length increases, the boiling point increases due to the number of V.D.W. forces
increasing.
Alkanes with branched chains cannot pack as closely as unbranched chains, so melting…

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Industrial Cracking
Shorter chain products are more economically valuable due to supply not meeting demand.

Thermal cracking...
700K-1200K
High pressure 7000kPa
Free radicals are formed due to one electron in a paired covalent bond goes to each carbon chain in
the break.
The free radicals are highly reactive intermediates.
Alkenes…

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Exacerbate asthma, cause cancer.

Unburnt Hydrocarbons
Greenhouse gases, photochemical smog.

Carbon dioxide
Greenhouse gas.
Produced when hydrocarbons are burned.

Water vapour
Greenhouse gas

To remove sulfur... FLUE GAS DESULFURISATION
Some chimneys use CaO, CaCO which produces gypsum CaSO (plaster)

Catalytic convertors...
Honeycomb made of ceramic material, coated with rhodium and…

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