Chemistry AQA AS Unit 2 Alcohols

Made these notes for my year 12 summer exam to revise and read over. There are spelling mistakes in most of my files but due to the busy exam schedule I had no time to correct them (sorry).

Most files have more information than what is needed but I feel it helps you feel more confident walking into the exam if you have a greater knowledge background and may help when having to apply knowledge to questions. Good luck :)

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  • Created on: 02-09-13 13:26
Preview of Chemistry AQA AS Unit 2 Alcohols

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Alcohols
GENERAL FORMULA
CnH2n+1OH
FUNCTIONAL GROUP
OH called `ol' e.g. ethanol
POSITION ISOMERS
OH GROUP:
Diol = 2
Triol = 3
Tetraol = 4
SHAPE
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
Melting/boiling points:
Hydrogen bonding and therefore higher than alkanes of similar Mr.
Solubility in water:
They are soluble in water as both water and alcohols have hydrogen bonds.
However solubility decreases as the chain length increases because there is a larger proportion
of V.D.W. which cannot disrupt hydrogen bonds in water.
Ethanol Production...
COMMERCIAL USES:
Ethanol is used to be a solvent (mixes aq and fatty sample)
Makes cosmetics, perfume, drugs, detergents, alcohol.
HYDRATION:

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Making ethanol from crude oil by hydration:
Ethane + steam = ethanol.…read more

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O] + HO
(ii) propanol (aldehyde) to propanoic acid (carboxylic acid)
+ [O]
OR (i) + (ii) propanol to propanoic acid
+ 2[O] + HO
Alcohol secondary:
SECONDARY CANNOT FORM CARBOXYLIC ACID
(i) propan-2-ol to propanone
+ [O]
Alcohol tertiary:
DOESN'T make an aldehyde, or ketone, or carboxylic acid. NO REACTION.
Testing...
The dichromate is reduced to chromium (III) ions. It goes from ORANGE CrO2 to GREEN Cr3
The primary and secondary alcohol reactions therefore go green.…read more

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Use AMMONICAL (aq ammonia) solution of silver
nitrate.
If it is positive, aldehydes show as silver mirror.
Keytones are not changed with gentle oxidation.
Ag is reduced to Ag (s)
THE FEHLING'S/BENEDICT'S TESTS
Reduction of the Cu2+ to Cu
Goes from blue to brick red precipitate.
Identifies aldehydes.
Elimination Reactions
Removal of water therefore also dehydration
It is using concentrated sulfuric acid.
Or by passing over a catalyst of Aluminium Oxide granules.…read more

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