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Atoms Made up of Nucleus, protons , neutrons, + electrons. Complete atoms have NO CHARGE.
Protons MASS = 1 UNIT and CHARGE = +1
Neutrons MASS= 1 UNIT and CHARGE = 0
Electrons MASS= 1 UNIT and CHARGE = -1
Isotopes Atoms of an element which have the SAME NUMBER OF PROTONS, but DIFFERENT NUMBERS
Column Number Group numbers (in periodic table)
Group Number Number of electrons in outer shell
Row number Number of electron shells
Atomic Number Number of PROTONS in an atom
Mass Number Number of PROTONS AND NEUTRONS in an atom
Group 1 metals (aka alkali - Have 1 electron in outer most shell
metals) - Soft metals, easily cut
- Reacts with water and oxygen
- Reactivity increases down the group
- Low melting and boiling points
Group 0/8 metals (aka noble - Have 2/8 electrons in outer most shell
gases) - Very stable gases, no reaction
Ionic Bonding Bonding between METALS & NON METALS
Metallic element will lose one or more electrons which are transferred to the Non Metallic
element. Ions are formed.
Strong ELECTROSTATIC FORCES
Conducts electricity when MOLTEN or IN SOLUTION
Covalent Bonding A SHARED pair of electrons.
Bonding between NON METALS & NON METALS
Strong COVALENT BONDS, WEAK INTERMOLECULAR FORCES
Doesn't conduct electricity
Metallic Bonding Bonding between METALS & METALS
Soluble Dissolves in water
Insoluble Doesn't dissolve in water
Exothermic Reactions Transfer energy to the surroundings.
Endothermic Reactions Take in energy from the surroundings.
Displacement Where a more reactive metal is put into a salt solution with a less reactive metal.
Aqueous solution A solution which contains ions
Cathode NEGATIVE Terminal (Attract Cations)
Anode POSITIVE Terminal (Attract Anions)
Cation POSITIVE IONS (Usually from METALS)
Anion NEGATIVE IONS (Usually from NON METALS)
Electrolysis Splitting up USING ELECTRICITY
Electrodes Electricity Terminals (Cathode + Anode)
Electrostatic forces Holds bonds together (forces of attraction)
Electrolyte A LIQUID CONDUCTOR of ELECTRICITY
Catalysts Usually speed up the rate of Reaction
Inhibitors Negative Catalysts, Slow down rate of reaction
Reagent The particles that react to form a product
Enzymes Biological Catalysts
Activation Energy Energy needed to start a chemical reaction. (for particles to collide)
Equilibrium The point where the rate of forward reaction is equal to the rate of reverse reaction.
Reversible reaction A reaction where the products can react again to form the reactants.
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Molten Salts Formed when metals bond with non metals
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