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Physical Tests and Chemical Tests to
Test for Chemicals! YAAAAAY! by Marco Narajos ;]

Group 7 chemicals

Testing for the presence of halide ions
o Use acidified silver nitrate
White precipitate (silver chloride) for chloride
Cream precipitate (silver bromide) for bromide
Yellow precipitate (silver fluoride) for iodide
No precipitate for…

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Fluoride ions react in an acid-base reaction (with the fluoride acting as
the base) to form hydrogen fluoride (steamy fumes) and a hydrogen
sulphate.
NaF + H2SO4 ­> NaHSO4 (stays in solution) + HF (steamy fumes)
This is NOT a redox reaction. (S oxidation state = +6)
Chloride ions react…

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Group 2 chemicals

Test for sulphate ions
o Add acidified barium chloride (acidified to remove carbonate ions)
Acidified with hydrochloric acid, NOT sulphuric acid (as this contains
sulphate ions)
White precipitate if sulphates are present (forms insoluble barium
sulphate)


Organic Chemistry

Test to differentiate between primary/secondary alcohols and a tertiary…

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Test for an acid (like a carboxylic acid)
o Add sodium hydrogen carbonate (NaHCO3)
Fizzes in the presence of an acid as CO2 is released (water is also
formed
o Or pH indicators: universal ­ yellow/orange/red; blue litmus ­ turns red


Physical Tests

You are unlikely to need to know…

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