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CHEM1 Foundation Chemistry
Definitions to Learn

1. Formulae & Equations

Atomic number number of protons in the nucleus of an atom

Mass number sum of the protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom

Isotopes atoms with the same number of protons but different
numbers of neutrons

Empirical formula…

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Polar bond electrons are shared unequally (due to difference in
electronegativity of atoms at either end)

1st ionisation energy energy change when one mole of electrons is removed from
one mole of gaseous atoms

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5. Alkanes

Homologous series a series of organic compounds with:
the same general formula
difference of CH2 between each member
a trend in physical properties
similar chemical properties

Functional group a group of atoms responsible for the characteristic
reactions of a compound

Structural isomers same molecular formula, different structures


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CHEM1 Foundation Chemistry

1. Formulae & Equations

Molar mass* Sum of masses of elements in formula
e.g. 106.0 for Na2CO3 (always give to 1 dp)

Percentage by mass Mass of specified element x 100%
Molar mass
e.g. 43.4% for Na in Na2CO3

Empirical formula For each element, divide percentage…

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K = C+273


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