Chapter 3 Bonding AQA unit 1 AS chemistry

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Preview of Chapter 3 Bonding AQA unit 1 AS chemistry

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Topic 1.3
Types of bond
States of matter
Structure and physical properties
Molecular shapes
Intermolecular forces
Mill Hill County High School

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Why do chemical bonds form?
Atoms bond because they want to gain an electronic structure, in its outermost
shell/level, like the noble gases so they can be stable and un-reactive.
This is because the stability and reactivity of an atom relies on the number of
electrons in the outer most shell. If the outermost shell is full then they are
un-reactive and stable which is what each atom desires.…read more

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Covalent bonding
A covalent bond is a pair of electrons shared between two non-metal atoms.
This bond occurs between a pair of non-metal atoms
The atoms share some of their outer electrons so that each atom has a stable
noble gas arrangement
A covalent bond is represented by a short straight line between the two atoms.
Eg water
In a dative covalent bond, one atom provides both electrons to the bond.…read more

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Metallic bonding
A metallic bond is an attraction between cations and a sea of electrons. This is
caused by the metal losing an electron. This electron moves around the structure
un-binded. The atom however, becomes positively charged. Thus the positive nuclei get
attracted by electrostatic force of attraction by the delocalized electrons.…read more

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Metallic bonding happens because the electrons are attracted to more than one
nucleus and hence more stable. The electrons are said to be delocalized ­ they
are not attached to any particular atom but are free to move between the
atoms.…read more

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Electro-negativity is the relative ability of an atom to attract electrons in a
covalent bond.
The electro-negativity of an atom is its ability to attract shared pairs of electrons
(these are in an electron density cloud as electrons are viewed as being charged
clouds) from a covalent bond.
Pauli scale is used as a measure of electro-negativity. It runs from 0-4 and the
greater the number, the more electronegative the atom is.…read more

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K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr
0.8 1.0 1.3 1.5 1.6 1.6 1.5 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.9 1.6 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.4 2.8
Note that the noble gases cannot be ascribed an electro-negativity since they do not
form bonds.
Electro-negativity is a very useful concept for predicting whether the bonding between
two atoms will be ionic, covalent or metallic.
Consider a covalent bond between two atoms A and B.…read more

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Eg H (2.1) and O (3.0)
a polar covalent bond
A slight positive charge or negative charge on an atom is represented by a or a symbol
If the difference between the two atoms is large, then the sharing of electrons is so uneven that
the more electronegative atom has virtually sole possession of the electrons. The electrons are,
in effect, not shared at all but an electron has essentially between transferred from one atom to
the other.…read more


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