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Topic 1.3


Types of bond
States of matter
Structure and physical properties
Molecular shapes
Intermolecular forces

Mill Hill County High School

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Why do chemical bonds form?
Atoms bond because they want to gain an electronic structure, in its outermost
shell/level, like the noble gases so they can be stable and un-reactive.
This is because the stability and reactivity of an atom relies on the number of
electrons in…

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ii) Covalent bonding

A covalent bond is a pair of electrons shared between two non-metal atoms.

This bond occurs between a pair of non-metal atoms
The atoms share some of their outer electrons so that each atom has a stable
noble gas arrangement
A covalent bond is represented by a…

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iii) Metallic bonding

A metallic bond is an attraction between cations and a sea of electrons. This is
caused by the metal losing an electron. This electron moves around the structure
un-binded. The atom however, becomes positively charged. Thus the positive nuclei get
attracted by electrostatic force of attraction by…

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Metallic bonding happens because the electrons are attracted to more than one
nucleus and hence more stable. The electrons are said to be delocalized ­ they
are not attached to any particular atom but are free to move between the

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Electro-negativity is the relative ability of an atom to attract electrons in a
covalent bond.

The electro-negativity of an atom is its ability to attract shared pairs of electrons
(these are in an electron density cloud as electrons are viewed as being charged
clouds) from…

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0.9 1.2 1.5 1.8 2.1 2.5 3.0
K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr

0.8 1.0 1.3 1.5 1.6 1.6 1.5 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.9 1.6 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.4 2.8

Note that the noble gases cannot be ascribed…

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Eg H (2.1) and O (3.0)

a polar covalent bond

A slight positive charge or negative charge on an atom is represented by a or a symbol

If the difference between the two atoms is large, then the sharing of electrons is so uneven that
the more electronegative atom…


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