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Atomic structure and Bonding:

Atomic Structures:

Atoms consist of electrons surrounding a nucleus that contains protons and neutrons. Neutrons
are neutral, but protons and electrons are electrically charged. Protons have a positive charge and
electrons have a negative charge. The number of protons in an atom is called its atomic…

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Energy levels and shells:
Electrons are arranged in different shells around the nucleus. The innermost shell, or lowest
energy level, is filled first. Each succeeding shell can only hold a certain number of electrons before
it becomes full. The innermost shell can hold a maximum of two electrons, the second…

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Electronic structure:

The electronic structure of an atom is a description of how the electrons are arranged. The first 20
elements in the periodic table run from hydrogen to calcium. Their electronic structures can be
shown either as diagrams or numbers. The number of electrons in the highest occupied energy…

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Ca 2,8,8,2 Calcium atoms have 20 electrons. Group 2
Two of these fit into the first energy
level, eight into the second energy
level, another eight into the third
energy level. The last two fit into the
fourth energy level.


Electronic structure and the periodic table:
There is a link…

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Ionic Bonding:

Ions are electrically charged particles formed when atoms lose or gain electrons. They have the
same electronic structures as noble gases. Metal atoms form positive ions, while nonmetal atoms
form negative ions. The strong electrostatic forces of attraction between oppositely charged ions
are called ionic bonds. Ionic compounds…

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Metal ions:

Lithium is in Group 1. It has one electron in its highest energy level. When this electron is lost, a
lithium ion Li+ is formed.










Sodium is also in Group 1. It has one electron in its highest energy level. When this electron is
lost, a sodium ion…

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Magnesium is in Group 2. It has two electrons in its highest energy level. When these electrons
are lost, a magnesium ion Mg2+ is formed. A magnesium ion has the same electronic structure as
a neon atom (Ne).







Calcium is also in Group 2. It has two electrons in its…

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Chlorine is in Group 7. It has seven electrons in its highest energy level. It gains an electron from
another atom in reactions, forming a chloride ion, Cl.










Oxygen is in Group 6. It has six electrons in its highest energy level. It gains two electrons from one
or two…

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Ionic compounds and ionic bonding:

When metals react with nonmetals, electrons are transferred from the metal atoms to the
nonmetal atoms, forming ions. The resulting compound is called an ionic compound.
Consider reactions between metals and nonmetals, for example,
sodium + chlorine sodium chloride
magnesium + oxygen magnesium oxide
calcium…

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Dot & Cross diagrams:
Sodium ions have the formula Na+, while chloride ions have the formula Cl. You need to show one
sodium ion and one chloride ion.










Magnesium ions have the formula Mg2+, while oxide ions have the formula O2. You need to show
one magnesium ion and one…

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