Pages in this set

Page 1

Preview of page 1
Solvents

Water does not dissolve nail varnish
This is because the attraction between water molecules is
weaker, compared with the attraction between water
molecules and nail varnish particles

Page 2

Preview of page 2
It is also because the attraction between nail varnish
particles is stronger, compared with the attraction
between waster molecules and nail varnish particles




Making perfumes

A perfume has to be violate to smell diffuse easily through
the air and up noses

If a liquid evaporates easily then the substance is…

Page 3

Preview of page 3
This means that particles with lots of energy can escape
from the surface of the liquid, becoming gas particles
These gaseous particles move through the air by diffusion
until they reach the sensors of the nose

Diffusion is the random movement of particles from an
area with high concentration to…

Page 4

Preview of page 4
Testing cosmetics

Advantages

1. No humans will be harmed
2. It allows scientists to predict what will happen to humans

Disadvantages

1. It only allows scientists to predict what will happen to
humans, the prediction may be wrong
2. Some people feel that testing on animals is wrong and
should…

Page 5

Preview of page 5
Naming esters

The name of an ester comes from the alcohol and the acid


Ethanol + Butanoic acid Ethyl butanate

Page 6

Preview of page 6
Preparation of an ester

1. Use ordinary dropping pipettes to put 0.5 drops of
ethanoic acid and 1.0 cm of ethanol into a pipette . Then
add 5 cm of sodium carbonate .
2. Ask your teacher to add one drop of concentrated
sulphuric acid to the mixture, then swirl…

Page 7

Preview of page 7
9. Clear up and dispose of the materials as instructed by
your teacher
Results

Carboxylic Alcohol Ester Smell ?
acid
Butanoic acid Propanol Propyl butanate Pineapple
Methanoic Pentanol Pentyl Marzipan
acid methanate
Butanoic acid Ethanol Ethyl butanate Banana
Propanoic acid Hexanol Hexyl propanate Orange




Solvents and solutions

Page 8

Preview of page 8
Solute ­ The chemical to be dissolved e.g. Sugar
Solvent ­ The liquid that does the dissolving e.g. Water
Solution ­ Solute and Solvent together
Soluble ­ Able to be dissolved in the solvent
Insoluble ­ Not able to be dissolved in the solvent

Water is the most common solvent…

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Chemistry resources:

See all Chemistry resources »