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Water does not dissolve nail varnish
This is because the attraction between water molecules is
weaker, compared with the attraction between water
molecules and nail varnish particles

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It is also because the attraction between nail varnish
particles is stronger, compared with the attraction
between waster molecules and nail varnish particles
Making perfumes
A perfume has to be violate to smell diffuse easily through
the air and up noses
If a liquid evaporates easily then the substance is violate
Violate perfumes are liquids that have energetic, fast ­
moving particles at room temperature
There is only a weak attraction between particles in the
liquid perfume so the forces of attraction between the
molecules…read more

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This means that particles with lots of energy can escape
from the surface of the liquid, becoming gas particles
These gaseous particles move through the air by diffusion
until they reach the sensors of the nose
Diffusion is the random movement of particles from an
area with high concentration to an area of low
The scent of perfumes usually comes from chemicals called
These are made by reacting an organic acid with an
Organic acid + Alcohol Esters
Perfumes have to…read more

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Testing cosmetics
1. No humans will be harmed
2. It allows scientists to predict what will happen to humans
1. It only allows scientists to predict what will happen to
humans, the prediction may be wrong
2.…read more

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Naming esters
The name of an ester comes from the alcohol and the acid
Ethanol + Butanoic acid Ethyl butanate…read more

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Preparation of an ester
1. Use ordinary dropping pipettes to put 0.5 drops of
ethanoic acid and 1.0 cm of ethanol into a pipette . Then
add 5 cm of sodium carbonate .
2. Ask your teacher to add one drop of concentrated
sulphuric acid to the mixture, then swirl it gently to mix .
3. Transfer this mixture to a shortened micropipette placed
in a beaker of sand . Use a plastic micropipette to do this
as shown below
4.…read more

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Clear up and dispose of the materials as instructed by
your teacher
Carboxylic Alcohol Ester Smell ?
Butanoic acid Propanol Propyl butanate Pineapple
Methanoic Pentanol Pentyl Marzipan
acid methanate
Butanoic acid Ethanol Ethyl butanate Banana
Propanoic acid Hexanol Hexyl propanate Orange
Solvents and solutions…read more

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Solute ­ The chemical to be dissolved e.g. Sugar
Solvent ­ The liquid that does the dissolving e.g. Water
Solution ­ Solute and Solvent together
Soluble ­ Able to be dissolved in the solvent
Insoluble ­ Not able to be dissolved in the solvent
Water is the most common solvent but not for all solutes
e.g. it does not dissolve nail polish
Many esters are solvent e.g.…read more


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