GCSE: OCR Gateway: C1: Making Craking Useful

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  • C1
    • Fossil Fuels
      • Finite as they can no longer be made or are being made very slowely
      • Making Crude Oil Useful
    • Fractional Distillation
      • Crude oil is a mixture of many types of oil which are all hydrocarbons
      • Crude oil is heated at the bottom of a fractionating column
        • Fraction (from highest bp to lowest):LPG, petrol, paraffin, diesel, heating oil, fuel oils, bitumen
      • Crude oils can be separated as hydrocarbons in different fractions have differently sized molecules
        • Intermolecular bonds are broken during boiling
          • The molecules of liquid separate from each other as molecules of gas
            • Large molecules such as bitumen have strong forces of attraction so a lot of energy is needed to break the intermolecular forces so these fractions have high boiling points
            • Smaller molecules such as petrol have weak intermolecular forces between them and so are easily seperated
              • Less energy is needed to break the intermolecular forces between the molecules so these fractions have low boiling points
      • Making Crude Oil Useful
    • The Problems of Extracting Crude Oil
      • Transportation: Oil slicks damage bird feathers and causes their deaths + clean up operations use detergents that can damage the wildlife
      • Political: UK dependant on oil and gas from politically unstable countries + oil producing nations set high prices and cause problems for the future supply of non-oil producing nations
      • Demand: as demand is high there is conflict between the needs for making petrochemicals and for making fuels e.g. naphtha is a fraction in high demand for medicine, plastics, and dyes
    • Cracking
      • Turns large alkane molecules into smaller alkane + alkene molecules
    • Using Carbon Fuels
      • Choosing Fuels
        • Fuel is chosen for its key features e.g. coal produces more pollution than petrol
        • The amount of fossil fuels being burnt is increasing due to the increasing population
          • Government are worried due to the increase in CO2 emissions
          • Countries with large populations (e.g. India) are using more fuel adding to gas emissions
      • Combustion
        • Complete combustion is where a fuel is burnt in plenty of oxygen
          • More energy released then in incomplete combustion
          • CH4 + 2O2 = Co2 + 2H2O
          • Burning hydrocarbons with a lot of air: methane + oxygen = carbon dioxide +water

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