Booklet about everything (and some moons at the end)

Some stuff is highlighted, basically I have an exam in two weeks so I made this booklet and decided to upload it if anyone else would like to use it. I got all information from my exercise book and from a website called Some of it's highlighted but just flick through it and see if you like it.

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The Earth
1. Eratosthenes first measured the circumference of the Earth accurately. He measured the
altitude of the Sun North of a place where the Sun was at the zenith at exactly the same time.
Knowing the distance and the angle one can work out the circumference.

2. The Earth…

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Tropics ­ Areas where the sun is directly overhead

The Atmosphere

Rayleigh scattering ­ light goes through atmosphere small amounts of red, orange
and yellow affected by air. Blue light absorbed by gas and scattered across sky.
Horizon paler as goes through more air, most gets scattered away. Less blue…

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Autumnal Equinox = Sept 23
Vernal Equinox = March 21
Winter solstice = December 22
Summer solstice = June 22

The Moon
The Moon's diameter is 3,500km and it is
380,000km from Earth

Its rotational and orbital periods are both
27.3 days. The lunar phase cycle (29.5 days)
takes 2.2…

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The Sun
The Sun's diameter is 1.4 million km and its average distance to Earth is 150 million km or 1 AU
(Astronomical Unit)

4.6 Million Years old
Surface temperature = 5800K (Kelvin)
70% hydrogen 28% Helium 2% other elements
Only star close enough to observe
Yellow Dwarf Star


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Sunspot with no penumbra = pore
Most common when magnetic activity is higher on the sun's surface

Observing the Sun

The Sun emits huge amounts of radiation covering all of the electromagnetic spectrum. One useful
wavelength is a red colour called H alpha which is emitted by excited hydrogen atoms.…

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Penumbral Eclipse The Earth blocks out some light from the Sun. Not really noticeable from
Earth without special equipment.

Partial Lunar Eclipse Part of the Moon is completely blocked of sunlight, i.e. is within the umbra
Total Lunar Eclipse The entire Moon falls within the umbra.
A lunar…

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Occasionally, on our journey around the Earth, the Moon blocks our view of the Sun. It is a
remarkable coincidence that both objects are of such a size and at such distances from us
that they appear almost exactly the same size to us in the sky. Because the ratio…

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Winter solstice ­ the shortest day, near December 21st, the Sun is lowest in the sky
Spring and autumn equinox ­ days and nights are equal, March 21st and September 21st

These variations are because of the tilt of the Earth's rotational axis (23.50) relative to the ecliptical


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Jupiter In the solar system

Dwarf Planets

Ceres (asteroid belt) - The first asteroid ever discovered. A Sicilian monk,
Giuseppe Piazzi first saw it in January 1801.

Pluto (Kuiper belt) - The presence of Pluto was mistakenly predicted from
irregularities in the…

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Conjunction: When two objects are close in the sky

Opposition: When a superior planet is opposite the Sun to us

Transit: When a small body passes in front of a larger one

Occultation: When a small body is hidden by a larger one


No atmosphere
surface like our…


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