Booklet about everything (and some moons at the end)

Some stuff is highlighted, basically I have an exam in two weeks so I made this booklet and decided to upload it if anyone else would like to use it. I got all information from my exercise book and from a website called www.astronomygcse.co.uk. Some of it's highlighted but just flick through it and see if you like it.

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The Earth
1. Eratosthenes first measured the circumference of the Earth accurately. He measured the
altitude of the Sun North of a place where the Sun was at the zenith at exactly the same time.
Knowing the distance and the angle one can work out the circumference.
2. The Earth takes 23 hours 56 minutes to rotate. This is a sidereal day.
3. The Earth is the only known planet with liquid water (70%), range of temperatures and free
oxygen that could support life.
4. CO2 traps sunlight reemitted from Earth's surface as infrared Radiation ­
Greenhouse effect
5. Circumference: 40,008 KM
6. Diameter: - 12,756km Equatorial
12,714km Polar = Average: 13,000km
7. 4.6 million years old
8. Contracted from dust and gas cloud
9. Crust is 22km thick ­ granite and basalt
10. Mantle reaches down to 3000km ­ silicate rock, flows under pressure, shatters on
impact
11. Core = 3500km ­ iron and nickel under high pressure
12. Core responsible for magnetic fields
Poles ­ the points that the axis of rotation of the Earth passes through
Equator ­ a circle around the middle of the Earth at equal distances from each pole.
Zenith ­ the point directly above you in the sky
Horizon ­ an imaginary line where the land meets the sky
Latitude ­ the angle of a location North or South of the equator
Meridian ­ an imaginary circle that passes through both poles. The prime meridian goes
through Greenwich
Longitude ­ the angle of a location East or West of the prime meridian

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Tropics ­ Areas where the sun is directly overhead
The Atmosphere
Rayleigh scattering ­ light goes through atmosphere small amounts of red, orange
and yellow affected by air. Blue light absorbed by gas and scattered across sky.
Horizon paler as goes through more air, most gets scattered away. Less blue
light reaches you.…read more

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Autumnal Equinox = Sept 23
Vernal Equinox = March 21
Winter solstice = December 22
Summer solstice = June 22
The Moon
The Moon's diameter is 3,500km and it is
380,000km from Earth
Its rotational and orbital periods are both
27.3 days. The lunar phase cycle (29.5 days)
takes 2.2 days more than its orbital rotational period because of how far the Earth moves around the
Sun in this time.
The Moon has virtually no atmosphere as its gravity is too low to keep one.…read more

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The Sun
The Sun's diameter is 1.4 million km and its average distance to Earth is 150 million km or 1 AU
(Astronomical Unit)
4.6 Million Years old
Surface temperature = 5800K (Kelvin)
70% hydrogen 28% Helium 2% other elements
Only star close enough to observe
Yellow Dwarf Star
The outer layers of the Sun are:
The Photosphere ­ the visible surface, 5,800K.…read more

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Sunspot with no penumbra = pore
Most common when magnetic activity is higher on the sun's surface
Observing the Sun
The Sun emits huge amounts of radiation covering all of the electromagnetic spectrum. One useful
wavelength is a red colour called H alpha which is emitted by excited hydrogen atoms. Astronomers
can use filters which cut out all but a very narrow range of wavelengths.…read more

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Eclipses
Penumbral Eclipse The Earth blocks out some light from the Sun. Not really noticeable from
Earth without special equipment.
Partial Lunar Eclipse Part of the Moon is completely blocked of sunlight, i.e. is within the umbra
shadow.
Total Lunar Eclipse The entire Moon falls within the umbra.
A lunar eclipse occurs when the shadow of the Earth falls on the Moon. They can only occur
when there is a full Moon and, like total solar eclipses, are quite rare.…read more

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Occasionally, on our journey around the Earth, the Moon blocks our view of the Sun. It is a
remarkable coincidence that both objects are of such a size and at such distances from us
that they appear almost exactly the same size to us in the sky. Because the ratio of the
distances to the Earth is the same as the ratio of their diameters they both take up the same
angle, about half a degree, in the sky.…read more

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Winter solstice ­ the shortest day, near December 21st, the Sun is lowest in the sky
Spring and autumn equinox ­ days and nights are equal, March 21st and September 21st
These variations are because of the tilt of the Earth's rotational axis (23.50) relative to the ecliptical
plane
Time
Solar day: Time between noon one day and noon next
Sidereal time: Time measured by stars
Perihelion: Earth is closest to sun ­ January
Aphelion: Earth is furthest away ­ July
1.A.…read more

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Planets
Mercury
Venus
Earth
Mars
Jupiter In the solar system
Saturn
Uranus
Neptune
Dwarf Planets
Ceres (asteroid belt) - The first asteroid ever discovered. A Sicilian monk,
Giuseppe Piazzi first saw it in January 1801.
Pluto (Kuiper belt) - The presence of Pluto was mistakenly predicted from
irregularities in the orbit of Uranus in 1906 by American Percival Lowell. Despite an
extensive search no planet was found until in 1930 Clyde Tombaugh, after a year
of searching, found the elusive object.…read more

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Conjunction: When two objects are close in the sky
Opposition: When a superior planet is opposite the Sun to us
Transit: When a small body passes in front of a larger one
Occultation: When a small body is hidden by a larger one
Planets
Mercury
No atmosphere
surface like our moon,
rotates very slowly
Named after the roman god of travel as it moves swiftly in the sky.…read more

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