First 235 words of the document:
Birth rate essay...
eg, examine the reasons and consequences of a falling birth rate.
Reasons for the falling birth rate...
Falling infant mortality rate means families do not need to have as many children, as
children are significantly more likely to survive. The infant mortality rate has dropped
from 154/1000 in 1900 to 4.2/1000 in 2011.
Free, reliable contraception has been available from the 1960s so people can control
and select family size.
Changing attitudes of women. Wilkinson claims there has been a genderquake,
where women now prioritise a career over a family. This leads to women delaying
childbirth. The older a woman gets, the lower her fertility.
Consequences of the falling birth rate...
Growth of child-centeredness in society, where children are seen as precious and in
need of protection.
Social construction of childhood. Aries claims childhood did not exist in the
middle-ages, as children were viewed as adults, receiving the same punishments.
Paranoid parenting. Furedi claims this child-centeredness has led to parents being
paranoid about their children's safety. Eg, not letting their child walk to school alone
due to the fear of abduction, even though the number of abductions has not risen.
Demographic time bomb. There will be an increased dependency ratio, where there
are an increased amount of people not in the labour force.