Biology Revision Notes:Transporting Substances Around The Body

Biology Revision Notes:Transporting Substances Around The Body

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Just some notes to give a clear outline of the topic

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  • Created on: 21-03-12 17:12
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REVISION NOTES: BIOLOGY 3
UNIT 2: TRANSPORTING SUBSTANCES AROUND THE BODY
The Circulatory System
There are three main blood vessels in the system, which have all adapted to carry out specific
functions. The diagram below shows each of them:
The arteries (left diagram) carry blood away from the heart to the organs in the body. This is
usually oxygenated blood, explaining the red tubes. When you feel your pulse, which is the
arteries stretching as blood is forced through them and returning back into their original shape.
The veins carry blood towards the heart, usually low in oxygen and hence are deep purplered
in colour. No pulse in veins, but they do contain valves usually which prevent the backflow of
blood.
The capillaries are found in junctions between the arteries and veins. These are found in
huge networks. The walls are a single cell thick so that substances which need to get out of
the blood and into body cells can easily via diffusion.

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REVISION NOTES: BIOLOGY 3
UNIT 2: TRANSPORTING SUBSTANCES AROUND THE BODY
The Human Heart
Our hearts are made of two pumps, for the double circulation. These together beat around seventy
times a minute. The walls of the heart are made pretty much entirely from muscle, which gets oxygen
from the coronary blood vessels.
Blood Transport
The liquid part of our blood is called plasma. It transports red blood cells, white blood cells and
platelets.…read more

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REVISION NOTES: BIOLOGY 3
UNIT 2: TRANSPORTING SUBSTANCES AROUND THE BODY
Haemoglobin is a large protein molecule folded around four iron atoms. In an area of high oxygen
concentration, haemoglobin can react with oxygen to form oxyhaemoglobin, which is bright red in
colour, ergo blood being the colour it is. Oxygen is delivered by red blood cells, we know, to where
it's needed, but the way it is done is via the reverse reaction to the formation of oxyhaemoglobin.…read more

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REVISION NOTES: BIOLOGY 3
UNIT 2: TRANSPORTING SUBSTANCES AROUND THE BODY
Anaerobic Respiration
When you are doing extremely vigorous exercise over a long period of time, the muscles need so
much oxygen that even an increase in breathing rate and heart rate does not supply sufficient
amounts. So respiration which does not involve oxygen must be done ­ anaerobic respiration.
Muscles only switch to anaerobic respiration when they have been exercising for a long time and
fatigue.…read more

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REVISION NOTES: BIOLOGY 3
UNIT 2: TRANSPORTING SUBSTANCES AROUND THE BODY
The Dialysis Machine
The human kidneys are not immune from damage. And when they are damaged and stop
functioning, those toxins like urea stop being removed from the body, leading to death. There are
two ways we can deal with this problem, the first being dialysis. The machine used in dialysis is
called the dialysis machine, and relies on a process called dialysis to clean the blood.…read more

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REVISION NOTES: BIOLOGY 3
UNIT 2: TRANSPORTING SUBSTANCES AROUND THE BODY
must also follow a strict, healthy diet
after some years, the levels can be hard to maintain
Kidney Transplants
The other solution to the problem of kidney failure is a kidney transplant. A replacement kidney is
required for this, which must be healthy and donated by a donor. The patient receiving the kidney is
the recipient, and the kidney is attached to the normal blood vessels of their groin.…read more

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