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REVISION NOTES: BIOLOGY 3
UNIT 2: TRANSPORTING SUBSTANCES AROUND THE BODY




The Circulatory System





There are three main blood vessels in the system, which have all adapted to carry out specific
functions. The diagram below shows each of them:






The arteries (left diagram) carry blood away from the heart to…

Page 2

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REVISION NOTES: BIOLOGY 3
UNIT 2: TRANSPORTING SUBSTANCES AROUND THE BODY



The Human Heart

Our hearts are made of two pumps, for the double circulation. These together beat around seventy
times a minute. The walls of the heart are made pretty much entirely from muscle, which gets oxygen
from the…

Page 3

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REVISION NOTES: BIOLOGY 3
UNIT 2: TRANSPORTING SUBSTANCES AROUND THE BODY






Haemoglobin is a large protein molecule folded around four iron atoms. In an area of high oxygen
concentration, haemoglobin can react with oxygen to form oxyhaemoglobin, which is bright red in
colour, ergo blood being the colour it is.…

Page 4

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REVISION NOTES: BIOLOGY 3
UNIT 2: TRANSPORTING SUBSTANCES AROUND THE BODY












Anaerobic Respiration

When you are doing extremely vigorous exercise over a long period of time, the muscles need so
much oxygen that even an increase in breathing rate and heart rate does not supply sufficient
amounts. So respiration which…

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REVISION NOTES: BIOLOGY 3
UNIT 2: TRANSPORTING SUBSTANCES AROUND THE BODY









The Dialysis Machine

The human kidneys are not immune from damage. And when they are damaged and stop
functioning, those toxins like urea stop being removed from the body, leading to death. There are
two ways we can deal…

Page 6

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REVISION NOTES: BIOLOGY 3
UNIT 2: TRANSPORTING SUBSTANCES AROUND THE BODY



must also follow a strict, healthy diet
after some years, the levels can be hard to maintain



Kidney Transplants

The other solution to the problem of kidney failure is a kidney transplant. A replacement kidney is
required for this,…

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