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Exchange of material - Active Transport
08 April 2012

· Three methods for dissolved substances to move in and out of
o Diffusion ­ net movement of substances from a high to a
low concentration along a concentration gradient.
o Osmosis ­ net movement of water from a…

Page 2

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Exchange of gases in the lungs
08 April 2012
· The breathing system
o Breathing brings oxygen into the body and removes carbon dioxide produced
o Lungs bring in oxygen-rich air and removes air containing waste carbon dioxide
o When you breathe in the ribs move up and out…

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· Nitrogen is around 80% when we breathe in and 80% when we breathe out
· Oxygen is around 20% when we breathe in and around 16% when we breathe out
· Carbon dioxide is around 0.04% when we breathe in and 4% when we breathe out
· We can…

Page 4

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Exchange in the guts
08 April 2012

· Digestion is the breakdown of food into small soluble molecules
which can be absorbed
· Food is broken down in your gut and forms simple sugars such as
glucose, amino acids, fatty acids and glycerol which all need to be

Page 5

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Exchange of materials in other organisms
08 April 2012

· Gas exchange in fish
o Gills are made up of many thin layers of tissue with a rich blood supply
o Gills are thin so there is only a short distance for the gases to diffuse across
o Gills…

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Biology Page 6

Page 7

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Exchange in plants
08 April 2012

· Plants need osmosis to take water from soil and active transport to obtain minerals from the
· Gas exchange in plants
o Plants get CO2 for photosynthesis by diffusion through their leaves.
o The flattened shape of the leaves increases the…

Page 8

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08 April 2012

· Water loss from the leaves
o Plants contain stomata which open to allow CO 2 into plant; however, when the stoma is
open water is lost through water vapour. This is called transpiration
o Stomata can be opened and closed by guard cells which…

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Biology Page 9

Page 10

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Transport of substances around the body - The circulatory system
08 April 2012

Cells need oxygen and food and this can be satisfied only by a transport system which supplies
oxygen and removes waste. We use the blood circulation system
A double circulation
o We have two transport systems:…


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