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B7 ­ Further Biology

B7.1 Peak performance ­ movement and exercise

Vertebrates are animals that have an internal skeleton ­ those that do not have an internal skeleton
are called invertebrates. In humans and other vertebrates, the skeleton has two functions:

Support ­ the skeleton enables us to stand as…

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Taken together, the specific properties of each part of a joint enable it to function correctly ­ if there
is a problem with one part, the joint will not work correctly.

Exercise programmes can be put together by doctors, nurses, physiotherapists, personal trainers or
other experienced specialists ­ these exercise…

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A sprained knee can be the result of a sudden twist

A wrist can be sprained by falling on an outstretched hand

The symptoms of sprains include the following:

Swelling ­ due to fluid building up at the site of the sprain
Pain ­ the joint hurts and may throb…

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Blood is a mixture of different components:

Plasma ­ the liquid part of the blood ­ it transports:
Nutrients (e.g. glucose and amino acids)
Antibodies (which defend the body)
Hormones (such as insulin)
Waste (such as carbon dioxide from
respiration and urea form the liver)
White blood cells ­ they…

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Blood flows at high pressure from the heart in the artery - the blood reaches its destination via
arterioles that branch off the artery and into the capillary beds that surround cells

By the time blood reaches the
capillary beds from an artery, it is
at high pressure and this…

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If the temperature of the body is TOO HIGH then heat needs to be transferred to the environment ­
this is achieved through sweat being produced by sweat glands which cools the body when it

Vasodilation is the widening of the blood vessels (capillaries) that run very close to…

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This an example of effectors working antagonistacally ­ which means that they do opposite things
­ this allows a more sensitive and controlled response.

Glucose is needed for respiration ­ when we eat foods containing carbohydrates, enzymes are
needed to break them down into monomers.

Processed foods, compared to fresh…

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B7.4 What can we learn from natural ecosystems?

In a perfect closed loop system no material enter or leave the system ­ waste products from one
organism or process are used by another organism or process ­ the output from one part of the
system becomes the input to another…

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Vegetation is an essential part of many ecosystems:

Roots help to stabilise the soil ­ preventing it from being eroded by heavy rain (especially
in rainforests). Vegetation also reduces soil erosion since foliage protects the soil from direct
Trees provide shade from the sun and help to insulate the…

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Human activities can unbalance an ecosystem, changing the inputs and outputs so much that the
ecosystem can no longer adapt ­ this means that the system is no longer a closed loop.

Eutrophication is where an excess of nutrients is put into a system, causing the productivity of the




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I love you so much! You have gotten me through basically all my science exams!!! :))))



THIS IS GREAT BUT I CANT FIND YOUR DOCUMENTS FOR biology 4-6 and chemistry 1-3



awesome. I love your resources. Can you make a document on p6, plz? Really need help on that.



saved my life considering my teacher hasn't finished B7!!!THANK YOU 

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