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Exchanging Materials:
Water and dissolved substances move:
Along a concentration gradient.
From high to low concentrations.
By osmosis and diffusion.
Active transport ­ the process of substances absorbed against a concentration gradient using energy from respiration.

Exchanging Materials in Plants:
Leaves have stomata to let carbon dioxide in and oxygen…

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Occurs during normal activity and produces more energy than anaerobic respiration (but less quickly).
Glucose + Oxygen Carbon dioxide + Water (+ energy)

The Circulation System:
Circulation system = heart, blood vessels and blood.
Oxygenated blood provides cells with food and oxygen.
Deoxygenated blood takes away waste products.
Blood travels…

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Released carbon
Alcohol ­ hops Alcohol ­ flavour Lactic acid clots milk
Result dioxide makes
added to flavour depends on grapes and thickens it
bread rise
Blood vessels take blood to kidneys Unwanted substances enter tubules Tubules join to form ureter
Unwanted substances reach bladder Unwanted substances released.
In a…


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