Biology AQA unit 1

revision, cell transport, heart, lungs, food tests, enzymes,

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Cell Transport
Uses energy Uses proteins Example
Diffusion No No Carbon dioxide
Lipid soluble
Facilitated No Yes Glucose
diffusion Sodium
Osmosis No No H2O ­ water
Active Yes Yes Hydrogen
Transport Glucose
Diffusion The movement of water molecules from a region of high concentration to an
area of low concentration
Factors that affect Concentration gradient
Temperature (more kinetic energy affects the rate)
Surface area ( faster as more area to diffuse)
diffusion pathway (shorter = quicker)
Osmosis ­ the diffusion of water, over a partially permeable
membrane. Water moves along the concentration gradient of the
water only ­ High concentration= high water potential
Facilitated diffusion ­ Diffusion speeded up by specific membrane protein. It works
with the concentration gradient so no ATP required.

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Rate can be increased by: Microvilli, increased surface area= more proteins
lots of mitochondria = more energy
Food Tests
Starch ­ Iodine test
1 Add little amount of iodine solution
2 Positive = blue/black colour
negative = yellow/brown
reducing sugars( most sugars ­not sucrose) ­ Benedict's test
1 Add little Benedict's regent
2 shake and heat
3 positive= orange
negative= blue
Non reducing sugar(sucrose) Benedict's test
1 Boil with hydrochloric acid
2 Neutralise with sodium hydrocarbonate
3 ­ Same as above!!
Lipids Emulsion test
1…read more

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Protein Biuret test
1 Add Biuret solution
2 shake
3 Positive= lilac
negative = light blue
Protein Benedict's
one or more chains of amino acids
specific 3D structure held by hydrogen bonds
DENATURED by extreme heat and pH
Induced fit theory
The enzyme moulds around substrate =
enzyme + product
Turnover number = number of ES complexes
being formed per minute
Enzyme substrate
Lock & key theory…read more

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Activation energy: Energy required for a reaction to take place…read more

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enzymes…read more

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Fungi Plants Animals
Nucleus yes Yes Yes
Mitochondria Yes Yes Yes
Chloroplast No Yes No
Ribosome Yes Yes Yes
Vacuoles Yes Yes no
Cytoskeleton Yes Yes yes
Plasma membrane Yes Yes yes
Cell wall Yes (chitin) Yes (cellulose) no
Comparison of different types of Eukaryotic Cell
Eukaryotic Cells
Nucleus This is the largest organelle,
surrounded by a nuclear envelope, contains
chromatin ­ the DNA/protein complex, also
involved in making ribosomes.…read more

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Cardiac output Amount of blood pumped out in 1 minute
Depends on: stroke volume and heart rate
C.…read more



This is really good :) perhaps add something on immunology and it would be near on perfect :D

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