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Cell Transport

Uses energy Uses proteins Example

Diffusion No No Carbon dioxide
Lipid soluble

Facilitated No Yes Glucose
diffusion Sodium

Osmosis No No H2O ­ water
Active Yes Yes Hydrogen
Transport Glucose

Diffusion The movement of water molecules from a region of high concentration to an

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Rate can be increased by: Microvilli, increased surface area= more proteins
lots of mitochondria = more energy

Food Tests

Starch ­ Iodine test
1 Add little amount of iodine solution
2 Positive = blue/black colour
negative = yellow/brown

reducing sugars( most sugars ­not sucrose) ­ Benedict's test
1 Add little…

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3 pure of liquid in to test tube of water
4 positive white emulsion layer

Protein Biuret test
1 Add Biuret solution
2 shake
3 Positive= lilac
negative = light blue

Protein Benedict's

one or more chains of amino acids
specific 3D structure held by hydrogen bonds

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Activation energy: Energy required for a reaction to take place

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Fungi Plants Animals
Nucleus yes Yes Yes

Mitochondria Yes Yes Yes

Chloroplast No Yes No

Ribosome Yes Yes Yes

Vacuoles Yes Yes no

Cytoskeleton Yes Yes yes

Plasma membrane Yes Yes yes

Cell wall Yes (chitin) Yes (cellulose) no

Comparison of different types of Eukaryotic Cell

Eukaryotic Cells

Nucleus This…

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The Heart

Heart beat
Both atria fill with blood Systole = Contract
Atria contract, ventricles fill Diastole = Relax
Ventricles contract
Pressure rises
AV valves shut
Pressure rises, above artery pressure
SL valves open
Arteries fill, ventricles relax
Pressure drops, SL valves shut
Pressure drops more
AV valves



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Cardiac output Amount of blood pumped out in 1 minute

Depends on: stroke volume and heart rate
C.O = HR x SV
= cm3/mins




This is really good :) perhaps add something on immunology and it would be near on perfect :D

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