Biological Molecules (and their tests)

A powerpoint that covers:

  • Carbohydrates
  • proteins
  • protei structure  
  • water 
  • lipids 
  • polymers/monomers 
  • bonding 
  • biochemical tests for molecules 
Powerpoint Presentation 4.56 Mb

Slides in this set

Slide 1

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MOLECULES…read more

Slide 2

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Biological molecules are all based on the element carbon
The table shows the 4 different groups of macromolecules, the monomers and the chemical
elements they contain:
Macromolecule Example Sub-unit molecule Elements
Carbohydrates Starch, Glycogen, Glucose C,H,O
Proteins Haemoglobin, Amino acids C,H,O,N,S
collagen, enzymes
(i.e. amylase,
protease and
Lipids Triglycerides (fats Glycerol, fatty acids C,H,O (+ P for
and oils), (and phosphate in phospholipids)
phospholipids phospholipids)
Nucleic Acids DNA, RNA (mRNA, Nucleotides C,H,O,N,P
tRNA and rRNA)…read more

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Name Symbol Number of bonds Other elements important in biochemistry include:
Carbon C 4 Phosphorus (P)
Sulfur (S)
Oxygen O 2 Sodium (Na)
Hydrogen H 1 Potassium (K)
Calcium (Ca)
Nitrogen N 3 Iron (Fe)…read more

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Form when two atoms share a pair of electrons
1 pair of shared electrons = single covalent bond
2 shared pairs of electrons = double covalent bond
3 shared pairs of electrons = triple covalent bond…read more

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Ion: an atom/molecule in which the total number of electrons is
not equal to the number of protons
Loses electrons = positive charge (cation)
Gains electrons = negative charge (anion)
One atom in the pair donates electron(s) and the other receives it
The oppositely charged ions are held together by being attracted
to the opposite charge (opposites attract)
Electrolytes = ions in a solution…read more

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