Other pages in this set

Page 2

Preview of page 2

Here's a taster:

Animal and plant cells
Everything is made up of cells. Most are very small only seen by microscope.
1. light microscope ­ magnifies things several hundred times
2. electron microscope ­ magnifies thing more than hundred thousand times
All animals and plants are made of cells. Animal cells and plant cells have features in common,
such as a nucleus, cytoplasm, cell membrane, mitochondria and ribosome. Plant cells also have
a cell wall, and often have chloroplasts and a permanent vacuole.…read more

Page 3

Preview of page 3

Here's a taster:

Chemical reaction in the cell:
There are hundred of explosion going on all the time in our cells. This works because each
reaction is controlled by an enzyme (biological catalyst). This is a protein which controls the rate
of specific reaction. It makes sure that reaction doesn't mix up with other reactions. They are
found through out the structure of the cell but are particularly found in the mitochondria and the
chloroplast.…read more

Page 4

Preview of page 4

Here's a taster:

Speciallised cells
Smallest living organism are called single cell. They carry out all function of life e.g.
reproduction, respiration. Most are made up of lots of cells. Some of them become Speciallised
cells in order to carry particular task.
The structures of these cells are adapted to suit the task it does. They look different to other
cells. Some of them only have one function within body.…read more

Page 5

Preview of page 5

Here's a taster:

Organized cells:
Specialized cells are often grouped together to form tissue. Connective tissue joins bits of the
body together. Nervous tissue carries information around your body. Several tissues joins
together to do a job. They form an organ e.g. heart, kidney etc. different organs combined
together make organ system to carry out major function in the body e.g. reproduction etc.…read more

Page 6

Preview of page 6

Here's a taster:

We need to take in substances such as oxygen and also get rid of the wasted product that are
needed else where in your body. Dissolved substances move in and out of your cell across the
membrane. They can do this by diffusion, osmosis and active transport.
Diffusion happens when particles of a gas or any substance spreads out.
Diffusion is net movement of particles from an area of high concentration to an area of low
concentration.…read more

Page 7

Preview of page 7

Here's a taster:

It is a special case of diffusion.
Osmosis is the movement of water from a less concentrated solution to a more concentrated
solution through a partially permeable membrane.
Water can move across cell membranes because of osmosis. For osmosis to happen you need:
two solutions with different concentrations
a partially permeable membrane to separate them
Osmosis in animals
If a cells uses up water in its chemical reactions, the cytoplasm becomes more concentrated and
more water will immediately move in by osmosis.…read more

Page 8

Preview of page 8

Page 9

Preview of page 9

Here's a taster:

There are three limiting factors that can slow down the rate of photosynthesis
1. Light
Without enough light, a plant cannot photosynthesize very
quickly, even if there is plenty of water and carbon dioxide.
Increasing the light intensity will boost the speed of
2. Temperature
As the temperature increases then the rate of photosynthesis
will increase as well.…read more

Page 10

Preview of page 10

Here's a taster:

The energy released in respiration is then used to build up smaller molecules into bigger
molecules. Some glucose is converted into starch. They also build up sugars into more complex
carbohydrates like cellulose. This is used to make new plant cell wall.
Some of the energy is used to combine sugar with other nutrients from the soil to make amino
acid. They are then build up into protein to be used in the cells.…read more


No comments have yet been made

Similar Biology resources:

See all Biology resources »See all resources »