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Animal and plant cells

Everything is made up of cells. Most are very small only seen by microscope.
1. light microscope ­ magnifies things several hundred times
2. electron microscope ­ magnifies thing more than hundred thousand times

All animals and plants are made of cells. Animal cells and plant…

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Chemical reaction in the cell:
There are hundred of explosion going on all the time in our cells. This works because each
reaction is controlled by an enzyme (biological catalyst). This is a protein which controls the rate
of specific reaction. It makes sure that reaction doesn't mix up with…

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Speciallised cells

Smallest living organism are called single cell. They carry out all function of life e.g.
reproduction, respiration. Most are made up of lots of cells. Some of them become Speciallised
cells in order to carry particular task.

The structures of these cells are adapted to suit the task…

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Organized cells:
Specialized cells are often grouped together to form tissue. Connective tissue joins bits of the
body together. Nervous tissue carries information around your body. Several tissues joins
together to do a job. They form an organ e.g. heart, kidney etc. different organs combined
together make organ system to…

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We need to take in substances such as oxygen and also get rid of the wasted product that are
needed else where in your body. Dissolved substances move in and out of your cell across the
membrane. They can do this by diffusion, osmosis and active transport.

Diffusion happens…

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It is a special case of diffusion.
Osmosis is the movement of water from a less concentrated solution to a more concentrated
solution through a partially permeable membrane.
Water can move across cell membranes because of osmosis. For osmosis to happen you need:
two solutions with different concentrations

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Cells in the leaves of plants are called chloroplast. They contain green substance called
chlorophyll. This gives the leaves its green colour.
Light energy is absorbed by chlorophyll during photosynthesis. This energy is used to convert
C02 from the air and water from the soil into sugar called glucose.…

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There are three limiting factors that can slow down the rate of photosynthesis

1. Light

Without enough light, a plant cannot photosynthesize very
quickly, even if there is plenty of water and carbon dioxide.
Increasing the light intensity will boost the speed of

2. Temperature

As the temperature increases…

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The energy released in respiration is then used to build up smaller molecules into bigger
molecules. Some glucose is converted into starch. They also build up sugars into more complex
carbohydrates like cellulose. This is used to make new plant cell wall.
Some of the energy is used to combine…


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