Bennet Levy and Marteau

key study with evaluation

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PHOBIA
BENNETT-LEVY and MARTEAU ­ fear of animals
AIM ­ to investigate whether we are more afraid of or avoid animals that:
Move quickly
Move suddenly
Look very different from humans
Tested the preparedness theory
IV ­ whether the participants had to rate the animals ugliness or scariness
DV ­ whether the scariest animals were rated the ugliest and vice versa
PROCEDURE
Independent measures design ­ two different groups of people
Some were interviewed
Used two questionnaires ­ Likert Style
Asked about 29 animals ­ participants were told that none were dangerous
30 men and 34 women answered questionnaire 1
Questionnaire 1 ­ asked about fear of animals and how close they would get
Fear scale (1 not afraid, 3 very afraid)
Nearness scale (1 enjoy picking it up, 5 move further away than 2metres)
24 men and 25 women answered questionnaire 2
Questionnaire 2 ­ measured how they felt about each animal (1 ­ not, 2 ­quite, 3 ­ very)
Ugliness
Speedy
Sliminess
Suddenness
RESULTS
Men and women judged ugliness in similar ways
But women were less likely to approach many animals
People:
Were less likely to approach and more afraid of ugly, slimy, speedy and suddenly moving
animals
Thought that speedy animals moved suddenly

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PHOBIA
CONCLUSION
The features of ugliness, sliminess, speediness and sudden movement all make animals more
frightening
Ugliness is judged by how different they are from humans
Preparedness related to an animals' features
EVALUATION
Strength Weakness
Independent measures design ­ less likely to Results could be affected by individual
guess the aim differences
No fatigue effect
Gender differences were investigated There were more women than men
Same list of animals given to everyone so results
Larger sample is needed
can be compared
Only had to rate…read more

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