Reign of HEnry VII

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what were the main events of Henry vii's reign

22nd August 1485: Battle of Bosworth

1486: Lovell Conspiracy

1487: Simnel rebellion, Battle of stoke

1489: Yorkshire tax rebellion

1491-97: Perkin Warbeck's threat to the crown of England

1497: Cornish tax rebellion

1499: Warbeck's excecution

1500: third son Enmund dies

1502: Heir Arthur dies

1503: Wife Elizabeth dies

1506: White Rose handed over

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securing his reign

- predated his reign to the day before Bosworth, enabling Henry to seize estates of 'traitors' and increase corwn lands

- corination of the 30th of october, before parliment met

- marriage to Elizabeth of York, allowed by the pope and after his corination 15th Jan 1486

Patronage : 

LOrd Stanely - earl of Derby

Sir Edward Courtenay - Earl of Devon 

Jasper Tudor - earl of derby

Margaret Beaufort - Countess of Richmond, totally independant, one of the closest advisors to the king, considered a type of demi-queen, as she dressed and was treated like a royal consort.

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what does Henry do with potential Yorkist threats

warwick : in tower

Lincoln:  professed Loyalty --> to kings council

Surrey: in prison untol 1489

Northumberland: released and lands restored in 1485 after swearing allegiance.

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How did Henry have an advantage over Richard iii a

- country weary of war, would support a stable and peacefful king

- replacing an unpopular and dead king

- didnt rely heavily on certain families which would have expected rewards

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Details of the Lovell Conspiracy

1486

led by: Lord Lovell and the Stafford brothers- all loyal supporters of Richard iii

planned to detain Henry up North and cause unrest in the west. 

how was it crushed: Henry went North where, like wales and the midlands there was unrest

Armed response was necessary although it wasnt used 

offered pardons, rebels fled

(rebellion in Wales led by Herbert + Vaughun put down by local Rhys Ap Thomas)

leaders fate?: lovell escaped to Burgundy

stafford brothers attempted to turn Worcester against Henry where they were captured

Humphrey was then excecuted

Thomas was pardoned and remained loyal

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Details of the Simnel conspiracy

1486-87

led by: Lambert Simnell, pretended to be Earl of Warwick, supported by Earl of Lincoln 

Actions preceding the battle: Simnell was crowned Edward vi in Ireland

Henry paraded the real Earl of Warwick in London and offered pardons which were ignored.

stripped Elizabeth woodville of titles, Dorset breifly in the tower

Margret of Burgundy sent 2000 mercenaries to support Simnell, 1500  german mercenaries and 4000 irish peasants

Battle of stoke: many if Henry's men held back, just like the battle of Bosworth

 around 4000 of simnel's soldiers killed, 3 hours long

John de la Pole (and lord lovell) dead, despite Henry ordering that he should be captured alive

(failed to get widespread support as they were fed up with fighting, also there was fear of the Irish force brual reputation)

(suggested that Henry didnt find out about the plan until 1487, despite beinging in 1496)

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details of the Yorkshire tax rebellion

1489:

led by: Sir John Egremont, illegitimate member of the Percy family

causes:  Henry was raising money for a war with France as they were planning to annex Brittany, parliment granted £100,000

many of the northern states weren't taxed for this as they needed to keep up the Northern Border, but York wasn't one of them they had also suffered from a bad harvest iin the year before.

The earl of Northumberland was murdered as he attempted to collect the tax, as Henry refused to negotiate (although this wasnt inparticularly uncommon)

events: rising was easily crushed by the royal army and none of the tax was collected

as this had exposed Henry's weakness in the north Henry appointed the Earl of Surrey as he had no connections in this area, and his success would mean the return of his estates back to him.

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details of the warbeck rebellion

1491-97

led by: Perkin Warbeck, burgundian pretender of Edward's second son Richard, Duke of York used to be a servent for yorkist Sir Edward Brayton

events:

1491:  Warbeck arrived in Ireland courtesy of the king of France. He attempted to get support from Irish lords as Ireland was traditionally a Yorkist Stronghold but as Kildare especially didnt give support Warbeck then went to France

1492:  Warbeck was welcomed into french court by Charles VIII as a Prince where he met with 100 other Yorkists. However in the Treaty of Etaples, both France and England promised not to harbour fugitives (from here onwardss there was no further French support)

1493:  Warbeck fled to Burgundy, Margaret tutored him in the ways of a Yorkist court. As Phillip gained control of Burgundy Henry protested against the harbouring of Warbeck. Henry then imposed a trade ban 1493-96. Phillip's father Maximillion invited him to his court where he was recognised as King Richard IV of England, Warbeck promised that if he died then his claim to the throne would fall to Maximillon. (Maximillion didnt have the finances to provide military support, interests lay in italy)

1494:  Henry elevated his son to duke of york, to make less room for a pretender of the dukedom of york. soon he discovere of Sir WIlliam Stanley's sympathising for Warbeck, soon put to death

 

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Details of the Cornish tax rebellion

1497

Led by:  Lawyer thomas Flamank

Causes: after the attacks from Scotland, which involved Warbeck, Henry again was again granted £100,000 from parliment. But as Cornwall was geographically unaffected by the scottish threat they refused to pay it

Rebels claimed to be angry at the kings advisors, Lord Chancillor Morton, financial advisor Bray.

Events:  rebellion attracted 15,000 men (minor gentry, clergy and Lord Audley involved) 

rebellion able to get close to London, although their numbers declines as they reached it.

Henry offered no pardons as he easily assembled a force of 25,000 to crush the rebels with, althought the tax was never collected

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Details of the Threat of the De la Pole's

1485-1506

John de la pole duke of suffolk married to Edward iV's sister elizabeth

Leaders: -John de la pole, earl of lincoln + Edmund De la Pole, Earl of Suffolk --> both Edward IV's nephews- genuine claimant to the throne.

Threat: John de la Pole fronted the Simnell rebellion - died at the battle of Stoke

he had severe financial problems (unable to keep up with expenses of being king so downgraded to earl of suffolk in 1493. 1499 left england without permission, to burgundy- fined £1000 (crippled finances)

1501 he left with brother richard for Maximillion . many relations to the white rose were imprisoned or excecuted

by 1501 Edmund was calling himself the 'White Rose' - the last surviving yorkist claimant to the throne

fled again to Burgundy in 1501, he was protected by both Maximillion and Phillip. although both MAximillion and France were more concerned with the Hapsburg/ valois wars of Italy 

When Phillip was shipwrecked in England, Henry 'hosted' him until he agreed to hand over Edmund. Henry bribed both Maximillion and Phillip with 'loans' of £250,000 which were never repaid.

Edmund was handed over to Henry in 1506, he remained in the tower until his excecution in 1513

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How did Henry reward nobility differently to past

Henry reduced  the amount of titles availible, creating 3 new earls duuring his reign in comparison to the 9 created in Edward's 

As Henry far prefered Fines and pardons to excecutions, many nobels were given second chances to show their loyalty. eg the Earl of Surrey and Northumberland

Henry renews the ancient Order of the Garter, a prestigious title, but one which came with no land. he created 37 new knights, including the Earl of Oxford - who fought for Henry at Bosworth and Lord daubley who helped crush the cornish rebellion. Some new knights were also not nobility which meant Henry could reward Gentry memebers includng Reginald Bray and Edmund Dudley

He also invited men to the Royal Council  as a reward for good behaviour, one which numbered 200 men by the end of his reign.

- Northmberland reinstated to his old position in the north as guarentee of goood behaviour immediately

- willing to allow Richard's supporters in the royal council, despite suspicion

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how did Henry punish the Nobility differently to p

He used many attainders during his reign, this was reversable and Henry would attach conditions this encouraged nobility to behave.Henry attainted 9, reversed 5

Henry also used Bonds and recognisances - nobels which offended would pay for their offense or give money as security for future good behaviour. over half of the 62 noble familes where involved wth some kind of bond during henry's reign.

Henry also introduced that all nobels needed a licence to retain, £5 for each unlicenced soldier per month. Lord Burgavenny paid £70,000+ in 1506 because of this.

Henry insisted on exploiting the faded traditonal rights of a king

marriage: all marriage of heirs required permission of the king, paid 

Wardship: estates of minors under Royal control, all rent to the crown

Relief: payment made to the king when land was inherited

Livery: Payment made to recover land from wardship

As Henry used the 1486 act of resumption Henry gained much land which he could use as rewards. by the end of Henry's reign its estimated that Henry Vii had 5 times more land at the end of his reign than henry vi.  Viscount BEauchemont had to pay financial surities for good behaviour

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how did Henry use the King's council

Henry introduced the 'inner group', which resembles the 'privy council' of the later tudor period. This 'inner group' included Morton- Lord Counciller, Fox- Lord Privy Seal, Dynham- Lord Treasurer and 5 others. 

Henry also used new courts of law to govern:

-Court of Requests

-Court of General Surveyors

-Council of the Learned Law (this took over much of parliments job, Henry used this to renforce Henry's will in the case of bonds and recognisances, by 1504 it was run by Empson and Dudley)

Henry was careful not to rely on certain families like his previous kings had, instead he used members of the professional classes and the gentry which owed their position to Henry only

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How did Henry use Parliament

He only called 7 parliments, careful to keep them short (only 1-2 months) and attempted to live of his own expect in times of war. He was careful to not ask for much as it causes unrest , ie the tax rebellions, he also avoided asking for a tenth and a fifteenth for as long as possible.

He used parliment to authorise acts of attainder

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How did Henry control traditionally troubled areas

- COUNCIL OF THE NORTH

Henry gave the leadership of this to the Earl of Northumberland, after being murdered as part of the Yorkshire tax rebellion Henry replaced him with Surrey. Henry was sure to directly appoint all memebers of this council himself, increasing its role in defense and the provison of law and order

-COUNCIL OF THE MARCHES

After Edward established this in 1471 it had limited success in controlling the semi independant welsh lords.  Henry made his Heir Arthur Prince of Wales, reviving his council in 1493, and considering his own Welsh ties Wales remained peaceful under his reign.

-COUNCIL OF IRELAND

As Ireland was a yrokist stronghold, it was necessary to treat the situation with care, however Henry did not at first. the act of 'poynings law' of 1494 stated parliments couldnt be called without approval fo the king. however as the crowns control was limited beyond the pale, when Henry attempted to replace Kildare as Lord Deputy with English SIr Edwardd Poynings there was resistance. As there was when Henry tried to extend his power beyond the pale, eventually returning Lord Deputy to Kildare. 

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How did Henry use Local Government

Justice of Peace began to be appointed anually, to prevent a abundance of power, the roles of this changes to include

implementing social and economic statutes

dispensing justice and trying criminal offenders

upholding public order

replacing suspect members of juries

acting in non-captial offenses cases without a jury

rewarding informers

arressting and questioning poachers

power to grant bail

however they couldnt arrest suspected criminals, they still relied on unpaid officails to bring offenders to them, thy were often reluctant as it made them unpopular

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How did Henry handle his ordinary revenues

he made an effort to - reorganise financial admistrations

                                  - live of his own

                                  - increase income from extraordinary income

he maximised income from feudal dues, right to receive payment on the knighting of Prince Arthur brought £30,000, by demanding this he brought £203,000 during his reign

used Bonds and recognisances through the court of the learned in law, Dudley and Empson made very unpopular

Henry used the Chamber system, introduced by Edward iv to deal with crown finances in rejection of the traditional excequer. By 1490 the chamber delt with money from :  crown lands, feudal dues, (350pa in 1487--> 6,000pa in 1507 profits from JPS (varied year to year, Henry loved fining people, Earl of Northumberland paid £10,000 for ****** a ward), french pension. 

the only thing the excequer was in charge of now was the customs duties which resulted in £40,000 at the end of Henry's reign.  under Edward he received £70,000 under customs however Henry broke off trade with Burgundy due to Warbeck in 1493-96 and again in 1503-04

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how did Henry improve his extraordinary revenue

- loans rasied to £203,000 had to be paid

- benevolences and forced loans didnt have to be paid, 1491 Henry raised £48,000 for French war

- Henry raised £25,000 to fight the french from the Church

-when he tried to raise £100,000 from parliment he was faced with the yorkshire rebellion, little was collected. however it resulted in a pension of £5,000 from france annually, oart of the Treaty of Etaples 1492

Crown increased its income to £113,000 per year, restoring its solvency and allowed for greater freedom in action.However while this can be viewed as a success, the French monarch reeceived £800,000 per year

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what were Henry's foreign policy aims

  • national security- minimising threat from invasion from France and Scotland, defending the borders of scotland ireland and in Calais
  • dynastic security- foreign  enemies wanted to weaken  Henry's dynasty and Englands strength
  • financial and economic security- improving crown finances and increasing overseas trade
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what were the origins of the Brittany crisis/ henr

  • Ancient duke Francis had no survivng sons, insead his duchy would go to the heiress Anne
  • France was insistant in the dauphin of france, Charles VIII marrying Anne, as then Brittanywould be neutralised, as their children would inherit both

Henry is concerned about the annexation of brittany by France as it would mean that the entire other half of the English channel would be controlled by the French, a potential threat to them. As Brittany had also always been used as a counterweight to France, and his place of refuge for 14 years and so he felt indebted to them..

Maxmillion was concerned because he was Anne's betrothed, he didnt want France expandign further especiallly not into burgundy

Ferdinand of Aaragon wanted all possible counterweights to France as possible, as the expansion of France makes Spains mission to recapture Neverre even more difficult, not to mention their conflicting aims in Italy

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Henry's military involvement pre 1492

Henry was reluctant to fight against France as they had supported his taking of the throne in 1485, and due to his poor finances and unpopularity, there was a dynastic threat to the throne if he left the country

1489- Treaty of Redon

- he agreed to send 6,000 troops to Brittany to fight (to be paid for by Brittany), was this Henry's reluctance or Brittany's expectance of help from HRE and Spain

july 1489- Maximillion and Spain made peace with France (as speain wished to drive out the Moor's)

December 1491- Brittany accepted defeat, Charles and Anne married.

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Henrys action with france 1492

as henry had raised taxes and an army, he was unable to call it off, so in 1492 he sent an army of 15,000 men over the channel. arrives in october, late in the fighting season, proof he didnt wish for a long battle

-announced intention to assert claim on the french throne.

-beseiged Boulogne, France was more interested in war over Italy and annexing brittany, so a treaty was soon organised

Treaty of Etaples

  • France agreed not to harbour rebels ie warbeck
  • agreed to pay 50,000 gold crons per year for the next 15 years
  • agreed to pay the arrears of piequigny
  • paid for Henry's expenses in Brittany
  • overall France paid £5,000 per year, 5% of Henry's royal income
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Policy to France post 1492 - leagues of [blank]

league of Venice/ holy league

  • anti french
  • Henry was able to join as a neutral, no condition that he'd have to fight France, Ferdinand was worried about him allying with France.

Legue of Cambrai

  • anti spanish, due to their rivalry over Arthur and Catherines marriage
  • however, the league didn't threaten England,
  • Louis XII pulled out of the agreement aty the last minute, meaning it fell apart
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Warbeck rebellion pt 2

1495:  JUNE: Warbeck arrived at Deal where local milita defeated him. he feld to Ireland but was driven out. Warbeck fled to Scotland, he was wlcomed there as Richard IV, and married James iv's cousin Catherine Gordon.

1496: SEPTEMBER: James supported his unsuccessful attack in Northern England with 1500 scottish troops, no english support ofor Warbeck. James however then decided to side with Henry as they made a peace traty, later known as the treaty of Ayton, marriage to James IV and HEnry's daughter

1497: attempted to capitalise of the Cornish rebelleion, received little support, driven from both exceter and taunton. he then abandoned his supporters in order to seek santuary at Beaulieu abbey but in august he gave himself up, and confessed.

1498: despite Henry allowing him to be apart of royal council, when Warbeck ran away he was forced to place him in the twoer

1499: warwick and Warbeck excecuted for 'plotting against the king' 

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HEnry's policy towards Scotland

1486- Henry signed treaty with anglophile James III

1488- James III overthrown by francophile scottish lords in favour of his 13 yr old son James IV, worsening relations with France due to the Brittany affair meant the relations here worsened also

1492- Henry funded anglophile lords such as the Earl of Angus, who in this year took control of government

1493- Angus signed a 9 year truce with HEnry

1495- James IV became of age, backed Perkin Warbeck, gave military support for over the boarder invasions

1487- James IV signed the Truce of Ayton, James IV to marry Henry's eldest daughter Margaret

1503- marriage between Maragert and James took place

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Foreign policy - Spain

Treaty of MEdina del Campo - 1489

  • most significant foreign policy achievement- celebrated treaty by creating a new coin, where he wore an imperial crown
  • Catherine to marry Arthur, dowry of 200,000 crowns to come in installments
  • spain not to aid any English rebels
  • benefits of English trade with Spain
  • if either country went to war with France, the other would interfere

England would try and regain Naverre with help from Spain, Spain would help England to regain Normandy and the Guyenne

 1496- Catherine arrived with half of her dowry

1501- marriage

1502- death of Arthur

1503- Henry pushes for a papal dispensation to allow HEnry to marry Catherine, agreed in this year however there were many arguments over Catherine's dowry and Arthur's lands

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foreign policy - spain pt 2

1504- Isabella of Castille dead. this left Johanna and Phillip arguing over the succession of Castille with Ferdinand of Aragon

1506- Phillip of Burgundy shipwrecked on way to Catille to claim inheritance, Henry created treaty of Phillip to hand over Edmund De La Pole, Henry to marry Margaret of Savoy, Phillip's sister, Malus Intercurcus- English merchants have free reign but not reciprocal

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