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Earth's crust.
When an animal / plant dies it usually rots away but sometimes when
the conditions are right, the remains are buried quickly and is
fossilised. They are preserved on rocks, trees and mineral deposits.
The soft part of the animal (the fleshy parts) sinks into the sea floor
leaving only it's skeleton. The skeleton is buried by sediment but
fossilisation can only happen when the ground is continually sinking.…read more

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Mould and cast fossils show the whole animals skeleton. Trace fossils
only show footprints or burrows rather than the remains of animals.
Fossils can tell us about how animals and plants lived in the past. Once
people realised that fossils looked liked living animals and plants they
realised that they were our ancestors, and every other
animal or plants ancestors. We recognise a few fossils but
many fossils represent animals that are
now extinct and we have made groups
e.g. dinosaurs, ammonites and
trilobites.…read more

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Depending on how deep the fossil is they call tell its ages
and, in some cases can follow the changes in a species
over thousands of years
The fossil record
The horse like many animals, has changed over time
The fossil record of the horse shows this change
Not all living things have such a complete fossil
record; there are different reasons for this:
Some body parts decay quickly, soft tissue
often decays before it can be fossilised
Fossilisation is rare; most living things will…read more

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Theory of evolution
The first person to come up with any type of theory of
evolution was Jean Baptiste de Lamarck
He proposed the theory of acquired characteristics
He thought that organisms acquired (developed) special
characteristics which they then passed onto their
offspring; no genetic basis was considered
Charles then came up with a theory of `survival of the
fittest' or natural selection
Charles Darwin sailed around the
world from 1831 to 1836 on board the ship HMS Beagle
He developed the theory of natural…read more

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Those that survive pass on their successful adaptation to
the next generation in their genes
Over time, the changes may result in a new species
Where different species are competing, the less well
adapted species may become extinct
During his voyage on the `beagle Darwin made extensive
notes on several species
Finches…read more

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These have been evolved different beaks depending on
which island they had evolved
Darwin said that if seed eating finches from mainland
were blown to the islands there would not enough food for
all the birds
Finches with slightly different beaks could eat different
These finches would survive and produce young with the
same type of beak
Proof of Darwin's theory
There is a lot of evidence to show that we can be fairly sure
of Darwin's theory:
1.…read more

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Evolution of the horse
Each of
these bones
have been
found as
fossils in
various layers of rock of a particular age
No fossils have ever been found in the wrong age of
2.…read more

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The peppered moth used to be camouflaged in the
silver birch but the industrial revolution then
happened and the moths where then eaten quickly as
the soot changed the colour of the silver birches
Over 50 generations they got darker and predators
could not see them and so now in the industrial parts
the dark peppered moth lives and in the rural parts
the lighter coloured moth lives to hide from predators
3.…read more

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