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Fossils are the preserved
remains (or impressions) of
animals, plants and other
organisms from the past.
They are the evidence of past

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life and are found in the Earth's crust.
When an animal / plant dies it usually rots away but sometimes when
the conditions are right, the remains are buried quickly and is
fossilised. They are preserved on rocks, trees and mineral deposits.
The soft part of the animal (the fleshy…

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Mould and cast fossils show the whole animals skeleton. Trace fossils
only show footprints or burrows rather than the remains of animals.
Fossils can tell us about how animals and plants lived in the past. Once
people realised that fossils looked liked living animals and plants they
realised that they…

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Depending on how deep the fossil is they call tell its ages
and, in some cases can follow the changes in a species
over thousands of years

The fossil record

The horse like many animals, has changed over time
The fossil record of the horse shows this change

Not all…

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Theory of evolution

The first person to come up with any type of theory of
evolution was Jean Baptiste de Lamarck
He proposed the theory of acquired characteristics
He thought that organisms acquired (developed) special
characteristics which they then passed onto their
offspring; no genetic basis was considered

Charles then…

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Those that survive pass on their successful adaptation to
the next generation in their genes
Over time, the changes may result in a new species
Where different species are competing, the less well
adapted species may become extinct
During his voyage on the `beagle Darwin made extensive
notes on several…

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These have been evolved different beaks depending on
which island they had evolved

Darwin said that if seed eating finches from mainland
were blown to the islands there would not enough food for
all the birds
Finches with slightly different beaks could eat different
These finches would survive and…

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Evolution of the horse

Each of
these bones
have been
found as
fossils in
various layers of rock of a particular age
No fossils have ever been found in the wrong age of
2. The peppered moth

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The peppered moth used to be camouflaged in the
silver birch but the industrial revolution then
happened and the moths where then eaten quickly as
the soot changed the colour of the silver birches
Over 50 generations they got darker and predators
could not see them and so now in…

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