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Biology


Healthy- no infections or disease

Fit- how well you can perform physical tasks... strength, speed, agility,
flexibility, stamina

Cardiovascular efficiency- ability of heart to supply muscles with oxygen...
measured by stamina

Blood pressure- pressure is needed to pump blood to body parts...




Low blood pressure -poor circulation -tissues get…

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Makes plaques in artery wall... narrow arteries- restricts blood flow... heart
attack.


Narrow arteries... 1) heart muscles supplied with blood- coronary arteries

2) narrowed- blood flow restricted... heart muscle gets less
oxygen

3) a thrombosis (blood clot) also restricts blood flow

4) if a thrombosis occurs in an already narrow…

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(mineral)
makes
haemoglobin
for healthy
blood
Water Prevent
dehydration


Some amino acids- not made by body... have to get from diet- essential
amino acids.

All essential amino acids can be attained by eating meat (produced by animals)
- first class proteins.

Plant proteins don't contain all essential amino acids- second…

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Different diets... religious, e.g. Hindus don't eat cows, sacred... personal,
e.g. vegetarians, cruel to eat meat... medical reasons, intolerance or allergies


Too little protein- kwashiorkor... swollen stomach

Overpopulation- demand for protein-rich food is more than amount that's
available

Money- not enough to invest in agriculture... without good farming
techniques cannot…

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30 ­ 40 Moderately obese
Above 40 Severely obese


Not always reliable- athletes, muscle. Alternative= measuring % body fat


Infectious diseases- pathogens which are microorganisms.

1) Fungi ­ e.g. athlete's foot
2) Bacteria ­ e.g. cholera
3) Viruses ­ e.g. flu
4) Protozoa (single-celled organisms) ­ malaria

Symptoms- caused by…

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3) Producing antibodies...
a) Antigens- unique molecules of surface of each pathogen
b) When white blood cells find foreign antigen they'll produce antibodies-
which lock onto and kill invading cells. Antibodies specific to pathogen
c) Antibodies produced rapidly- kill all similar bacteria or viruses
d) Some white blood cells stay…

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Some bacteria- naturally resistant to certain antibiotics... misuse (over
prescription) increased rate of development of resistant strains


Antivirals- drugs that stop viruses from reproducing




Cancer- cells dividing out of control tumour (mass of cells)

Benign Malignant

Grows until no more room Grows and spreads to other places

Cells stay where…

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Open label Easy to conduct Risk of bias

Blind Medium to conduct Doctor may influence
view

Double blind No bias Hard to conduct




Drugs- substances which alter the way the body works e.g. illegal or medically
useful such as antibiotics... prescription or over-the-counter

Addictions...physical need for the drugs (not psychological)…

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Painkillers Aspirin Reduces number of
painful stimuli at nerve endings
Paracetamol

Performance Anabolic steroids e.g. Athletes use to help
enhancers testosterone build muscle

Train harder

Hallucinogens LSD Distract what seen and
heard

By altering pathways
that the brain sends messages
along


Law on illegal drugs-

CLASS A - heroin -LSD…

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Drunk- impaired judgement -poor balance -poor coordination
-slurred speech -blurred vision -sleepiness


Legal alcohol driving limits- 80mg alcohol in 100mg blood

Lifestyle guidelines- women- 14 units per week

- men- 21 units per week

1 unit... half pint of beer OR small glass of wine OR pub measure of spirits…

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