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"An emotional and reciprocal bond between two people, the primary
caregiver and the child, shown in their behaviour."…read more

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Maccoby (1980)
"We can see that two people have an attachment by looking at their behaviours."
Seeking Proximity: They want to be close to the parent and will follow them
Distress on Separation: The child will cry whenever the parent leaves the
room/puts them down.
Joy on Reunion: When the parent comes back the child will become instantly
General orientation of behaviour towards the other person: Feeling comfortable
around them.…read more

Slide 3

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Babies and Conditioning
Classical conditioning Operant conditioning
Unconditioned Stimulus: Baby Food
Unconditioned Response: The baby is happy because
they are getting fed.
Natural Stimulus: The mother as she is giving the baby
the food.
Conditioned Stimulus: The mother
Conditioned Response: A happy baby when seeing the
During classical conditioning the baby associates the
food with the mother.…read more

Slide 4

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Evolutionary Theory by Bowlby 1953
Attachment is biologically pre-programmed at birth states that the
Main hypothesis: Attachment will form with those who respond to child's signals. AND ability to form
there will be a special attachment figure that is more important than the others. an attachment
MONOTROPY ­ they select one special attachment figure. is innate.
CRITICAL PERIOD ­ 6 months to 2 ½ If an attachment isn't formed within the critical
period an attachment will never be formed.
INNATE ­ born with the ability to form attachments
doesn't consider
INTERNAL WORKING MODEL ­ template for future social relationships (attachment with
mother determines how all relationships should be) other factors such
as the learning
CONTINUITY HYPOTHESIS ­ will affect children's later relationships through to
adulthood. theory.
Deterministic states that the internal working model will
affect children's later relationships.…read more

Slide 5

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Harlow's monkeys
The baby monkey is separated at birth from its mother.
The robot monkey with food and a cloth, providing warmth, is the only mother it
The baby monkey is placed with a cage monkey providing food and a cloth
monkey providing warmth.
The monkey clung to the cloth monkey until the feeling of hunger overpowered the
need for comfort.
As far as the study by Harlow is concerned it doesn't support the learning theory
because the monkey formed an attachment with the primary care giver that
provided comfort not food.…read more

Slide 6

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Schaffer and Emerson 1964
39% of babies did not form an attachment with the person who feeds and
changes them but rather with the person who plays and comforts them.
Partially supports the learning theory as it was only 39% that attached with the
comforting person first, whereas 61% formed an attachment with the person who
provided food first.
The learning theory is NURTURE due to environmental factors (mother and food)
Deterministic because it states that it is going to happen an attachment will be
formed with the mother due to feeding.…read more

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