Other pages in this set

Page 2

Preview of page 2

Here's a taster:

TOF Mass Spectrometer
Machine used to analyse elements or compounds.
4 things happen when sample squirted into Mass Spectrometer:
1. Electrospray Ionisation sample dissolved in polar solvent and pushed through small nozzle
at high press. High volt. Applied causing particles to loose e. Ionised particles separated
from solvent leaving gas made of +ve ions.
2. Acceleration +ve ions accelerated by electric field. This give same KE to all ions. Ions with
lower mass/charge ration have greater acceleration.
3.…read more

Page 3

Preview of page 3

Page 4

Preview of page 4

Here's a taster:

Subshell notation
2. Arrows in Boxes ­ Each box represents one orbital. Each arrow is one e. Up and down
represents e spinning in opposite directions.
3. Energy Level Diagrams ­ Show energy of e in different orbitals as well as No. e and
their arrangement.…read more

Page 5

Preview of page 5

Here's a taster:

Electron Configuration of Transition Metals
Donate one of 4s e to 3d sub shell because rather have sable full or half full d sub shell.
When they become ions they lose their 4s e before 3d.
Ionisation Energies
First ionisation evergy = energy required to remove first e from 1 mole of gaseuous atoms to
form a 1+ ion.
MUST use gas state symbols because ionisation energies measured for gaseous atoms.…read more

Page 6

Preview of page 6

Here's a taster:

This proves e shells exist. If each element down group 2 has one more e shell then there is more
shielding which weakens attraction between outer e and nucleus. Also the extra shell increase
distance from nucleus so attraction reduced.
Across Periods: moving across a period the general trend is that ionisation energies inc. which can
be explained by increase in P no. which means stronger nuclear attraction.…read more


No comments have yet been made

Similar Chemistry resources:

See all Chemistry resources »See all resources »