Pages in this set

Page 1

Preview of page 1
Atomic Structure
Atomic Models ­

Dalton and Thomson: 19th century Dalton described atoms as solid spheres and said different
spheres make up different elements. In 1897 Thomson said that atoms must contain smaller ­ve
charged particles using data from his experiments. These were e. Theory of solid sphere changed

Page 2

Preview of page 2
TOF Mass Spectrometer
Machine used to analyse elements or compounds.
4 things happen when sample squirted into Mass Spectrometer:
1. Electrospray Ionisation sample dissolved in polar solvent and pushed through small nozzle
at high press. High volt. Applied causing particles to loose e. Ionised particles separated
from solvent leaving gas…

Page 3

Preview of page 3
Using Mass Spectra

Calculating A r ­

1. Read % relative isotopic abundance for each peak from y axis and relative isotopic mass
from x axis. Multiply together and get total relative mass for each isotope.
2. Add totals
3. Divide by 100 if relative isotopic abundance is a %.…

Page 4

Preview of page 4

1. Subshell notation

2. Arrows in Boxes ­ Each box represents one orbital. Each arrow is one e. Up and down
represents e spinning in opposite directions.

3. Energy Level Diagrams ­ Show energy of e in different orbitals as well as No. e and
their arrangement.

Working out Electron…

Page 5

Preview of page 5
Electron Configuration of Transition Metals
Donate one of 4s e to 3d sub shell because rather have sable full or half full d sub shell.
When they become ions they lose their 4s e before 3d.

Ionisation Energies
First ionisation evergy = energy required to remove first e from 1…

Page 6

Preview of page 6
This proves e shells exist. If each element down group 2 has one more e shell then there is more
shielding which weakens attraction between outer e and nucleus. Also the extra shell increase
distance from nucleus so attraction reduced.

Across Periods: moving across a period the general trend is…


No comments have yet been made

Similar Chemistry resources:

See all Chemistry resources »