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Sociology Study Guide AS Level
Topic 1-Perspectives:
sees society working as a whole and each individual part played is important to the functions of
Advantages-looks at society as a whole (macro view) which is what sociology is supposed to see,
quantitative data, can be generalized because it looks…

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Topic- Family
Conclusion- says the nuclear family carries out two functions: primary socialization and stabilization of
adult personalities.
Strength-validity (family is the primary socialization)
Weakness-no study so cannot be proven, nuclear families are in decline, focused on middle class white

7. Murdock
Conclusion-says the family has 4 basic…

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1. Marcuse- society has been hypnotized to believe that capitalism is the only way to go (why
there hasn't been a revolution)
2. Althusser (Neo-Marxist)- rejected the idea that social relations are determined by economics
only. He argued that there are three levels: economic, political, and ideological social classes.

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Disadvantages- cannot be studied because they think every method is wrong, therefore it cannot
be proven.

1.Lyotard- challenges metanarratives

2.Bauldrillard- mass media; loss of history

New Right
sees problems in society as being a result from a deviation from the nuclear family.
Advantages- uses government statistics (easy to compare),…

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open-ended and closed ended
structured(same questions for everyone) and unstructured
Advantages: It can be repeated and replicated, obtains quantitative data (positivism),
interviewers can clarify questions, higher response rate.
Disadvantages: It is more expensive (paying interviewers), interviewers have to stick to the
questions, no qualitative data is obtained (validity)…

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1.Goldthorpe(1970) ­looked at government statistics to compare blue and white collar workers
2.Deregowski- did a review article to see if picture perception is a universal language
Advantages: The experiment offers a high degree of exactness because one can control
everything in a laboratory setting. Variables can be precisely…

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1.McRobbie- looked at glossy magazines to see how women are portrayed (feminist)
2.David Morley(1980)- observed 3 different groups of people and how they interpreted television
programs (functionalist)
3.Lyotard and Bauldrillard- looked at mass media and used his research to challenge

Topic 3-Inequality and Stratification, Socialization:
Stratification- Wealth, power, and…

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highest social class. Those who only have their labor to sell (the proletariat) make up the lower
social class. According to Marx, when a "class consciousness" develops among the working class (
a task of politically active Marxist socialists) they will recognize their potential and rise up and
overthrow the…

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View- sees inequality and how it affects the individual
1.Cooley- poverty classes do not move up because of the image they have of themselves and how
they feel others see them in society. (Looking Glass Self)
View- sees how individuals respond to society and how it…

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1.Charles Murray- suggests that nuclear families are the number one force in socializing children.
When dysfunction happens in a family, the socialization process will be hindered.

View- socialization in society through mass media doesn't allow for people to know what's real or
unreal. Children are taught shallow ideas.…


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