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CARBOHYDRATES:
group of foods containing carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in same proportion found in water. Used
a source of energy by the body.
· Provides energy
· Carbohydrate digested, converted into glucose ­ found in
blood
· Extra glucose converted into glycogen ­ found in
liver/muscles
Divided into 3 groups according to size:
1. MONOSACCHARIDES: Simplest carb molecules ­ e.g.
fructose and glucose
2. DISACCHARIDES: Sugar formed when 2 monosaccharides join
with removal of 1 H2O molecule ­ e.g. sucrose, lactose, maltose
3. POLYSACCHARIDES: many joined monosaccharides ­ e.g.
starchm glycogen, cellulose…read more

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FAT:
Group of foods containing carbon, hydrogen and oxygen used as energy during rest and low intensity
exercie
· Building blocks are fatty acids and glycerol
· Fatty acid with all hydrogen atoms: saturated
· Fatty acid with missing hydrogen atoms
replaced by double bonds: unsaturated
· One double bond: monounsaturated
· More than 1 double bond: polyunsaturated
· 3 fatty acids + 1 glycerol = triglyceride
· Carries fat-soluble vitamins A,D,E,K…read more

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PROTEIN:
complex group of amino-acid containing foods, used for growth and repair and as a minor energy source
· Main sources: fish,egg,milk,cheese,nuts
· Amino-acids are protein building blocks, contain
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and sometimes
sulfur
· 20 different amino-acids
· Protein eaten, broken down in amino-acids, absorbed,
used to make other proteins in body
· human body makes some own amino-acids; non-
essential amino-acids
· Human body cant make some amino-acids; essential
amino-acids
· Protein necessary for growth & repair of body tissues
· Minor energy source…read more

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FIBRE:
· Major sources of dietary fibre are whole-grain
and high-fibre cereals and bread
· Dietary fibre act as bulking agent
· Relives constipation
· Large amounts of some fibre help reduce
blood cholesterol
· Help diabetics reduce blood glucose levels…read more

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MINERALS:
Inorganic chemicals required for body functions such as bone growth, energy metabolism and nerve
function
Help with:
· Formation of bones and teeth
· Essential constituents of body fluids & tissues
· Components of enzyme systems
· Nerve functions
E.g. calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, sodium,
potassium, iron, iodine…read more

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