AS Level Chemistry Revision Notes

Well, these are just some, rather extensive, notes that I've done for myself so that I can do the best I can in my January exam. Hopefully they'll be of some use to you lot and I hope they help all other Chemistry students out there.... :)

There's one topic we haven't covered which is Periodicity so that's the only one missing but this includes;

Atomic Structure, Mass Spectrometer, Electron Configuration, Structural Isomerism, Naming Organic Compounds, Shapes of Molecules, Bonding, States of Matter, Alkanes, Alkenes and much much more!

Kathryn.C

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  • Created by: Kathryn.C
  • Created on: 23-12-10 17:37
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AS-LEVEL
CHEMISTRY REVISION NOTES
CONTENTS
PARTICLES 2
MASS SPECTROMETER 3-4
CALCULATIONS 5-7
BONDING 8 - 11
ALKANES 12 - 14
STRUCTURAL ISOMERISM 15
SHAPES OF MOLECULES 16 - 19
STATES OF MATTER 20 - 22
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PARTICLES
c All elements consist of small particles called ATOMS
c Atoms are made up of SUB-ATOMIC particles/ FUNDAMENTAL particles
c PROTONS ­ Relative Mass (1), Relative Charge (+1)
c NEUTRONS ­ Relative Mass (1), Relative Charge (0)
c ELECTRONS ­ Relative Mass (1/1840), Relative Charger (-1)
c Number of Protons = Number of Electrons
c Protons and Neutrons found in Nucleus, held together by a STRONG NUCLEAR
FORCE (force strong enough to overcome repulsion between Protons)
c Electrons found in ENERGY LEVELS around the…read more

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ISOTOPES ­ atoms with SAME Atomic Number but DIFFERENT Mass Number
c Have same CHEMICAL PROPERTIES because they depend upon the NUMBER and
ARRANGEMENT of ELECTRONS
c May have different PHYSICAL PROPERTIES if they depend upon the MASS OF
THE PARTICLES; e.g.…read more

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MASS SPECTROMETER
c MASS SPECTROMETER is used to:
mDetection of Isotopes
mDetermine RELATIVE ATOMIC MASS
mDetermine RELATIVE MOLECULAR MASS
c IONISATION, ACCELERATION, DEFLECTION, DETECTION ­ IADD
m How Ionisation works:
¤ ELECTRON GUN fires HIGH ENERGY ELECTRONS at gaseous sample
¤ Knock OFF an electron on the gaseous particles ­ forms POSTIVE
IONS
- -
¤ X(g) + e = X+(g) + 2e
+ 2+
¤ If energy of gun is too high 2 ions could be formed; e.g.…read more

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Lighter 35Cl+ ion deflected more than heavier 37Cl+ ion
m Two peaks = reading at m/z=35 for 35Cl+ and at m/z=37 for 37Cl+
mOn earth there's 3-times 35Cl than 37Cl
35 + 37 +
¤ RELATIVE ABUNDANCES = 75% for Cl and 25% for Cl
m RELATIVE ATOMIC MASS:
¤ Is the AVERAGE MASS of atoms
¤ (Relative Abundance Isotope1 x Mass Isotope1) + (Relative Abundance
Isotope2 x Mass Isotope2)
(Sum of Relative Abundance)
+ +
¤ 2 ions; e.g. 35Cl2
¤ m/z=35/2 = 17.…read more

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CALCULATIONS
c Calculation for value of `x' in Na2CO3.xH2O
Percentage of water in Na2CO3.xH2O = 62.9%
When 100g of Na2CO3.xH2O is weighed out, 62.9g is water and 37.1g is Na2CO3
m Method:
¤ Number of moles of H2O = mass/Mr 62.9/18.0 = 3.49
¤ Number of moles of Na2CO3 = mass/Mr 37.1/106.0 = 0.350
¤ Ratio of moles of Na2CO3 : H2O = 0.350:3.49
Divide by smallest number = 1:9.97
= 1: 10
¤ Formula = Na2CO3.…read more

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MASS = Ar/Mr x Moles
m Moles = Mass ÷ Ar/Mr
m Ar/Mr = Mass ÷ Moles
c CALCULATION OF THE PERCENTAGE BY MASS OF AN ELEMENT IN A
COMPOUND:
mTo calculate the percentage by mass of K (Krypton) in K2CO3 (Krypton
Carbonate)
m Method:
¤ Mr of K2CO3 (2 x 39.1) + 12.0 + (3 x 16.0) = 138.2
¤ Mass of 1 Mole of K2CO3 138.2g (same as Mr)
¤ Mass of K in 1 Mole of K2CO3 (2 x 39.1) = 78.…read more

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Fe + S FeS
¤ 1 Mole of Fe reacts with 1 Mole of S = 1 Mole of FeS
¤ Number of Iron Moles being used mass/Mr = (5.6/56=) 0.1 Moles
¤ 0.1 Mole of Fe would react with 0.1 Mole of S = 0.…read more

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Mole ratio of NH4Cl : NH3 1:1 moles of NH3 = moles of NH4Cl 0.1
¤ V = nRT/P V = (0.1 x 8.31 x 303)/ (100 x 1000) = 2.…read more

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BONDING
c Aim of atoms when bonding is to OBTAIN 8e- in outer shell ­ gives ELECTRON
2 6
CONFIGURATION of s p (stable OCTET)
c IONIC BONDING:
mIonic bond formed by ELECTRON TRANSFER ­ from METAL to a
NON-METAL (with large difference in ELECTRONEGATIVITY)
mMakes OPPOSITELY CHARGED IONS
mDEFINITION: electrostatic (+ for -) attraction between oppositely charged
ions formed by electron transfer to form stable octets
mIonic compounds make IONIC CUBIC CRYSTAL LATTICES ­ made from
large number of ions held together by STRONG…read more

Comments

johnny zhang

nice

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