AS Geography world at risk and going global notes

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Geography notes:
Going Global:
Globalisation world becoming more connected. Due to MNC, internet, mobile phones and speed of transport.
Migration: ¼ of anaesthetists have moved to the UK. 27000 polish migrants are claiming child benefits. 2/3's of eastern
European migrants are from Poland. The average wage in Poland is £250 a month, they can earn this wage in a week in
England. There is also an unemployment rate of 25%. Joined EU 2004, 1 million migrated to UK, 82% are between 1834
years old. In Poland, 2007 35%of construction worker jobs couldn't be filled.
Why allowed deal with shortages of key workers. In 60's/70's mass immigration from commonwealth people worked in
factories and on British railways.
2004 10 countries joined the EU many took opportunity to migrate to UK e.g. Nurses from Philippines
Illegal migration Mexico USA barrier constructed, highly guarded, 90% of US border security work on this border. 1.5
caught trying to cross the border each year. Thousands get through
MNC WalMart makes $351 billion a year which is more than Saudi Arabia, Portugal and Singapore. Outsourcing used
by major companies 97% of Nestle employees are foreign and 95% of Nike factories are in LEDCs cheap labour,
poorly treated. Coco Cola had to pay compensation for racism towards workers. It also drains India's water supply and
dumps waste in water they do have. McDonalds employ 400000 workers in 120 countries, and use 16000 British suppliers
Grow through mergers e.g. coca cola merged with fanta and sprite. Popular in demand after appealing to local areas e.g.
mcdonalds adapting menu. Franchise and diversification.
China growing at rate of 8% a year due to MNC setting up there. By 2050 it will be largest economy in the world. 53%
of Chinese exports are from foreign MNC. 56% of world's exports are from China. Britain export $2bn worth of goods
to China, and China export $30bn worth to Britain. World's largest consumer cost of meats increase because of China
demand.
Negatives8million leave countryside for work lack of food production? By 2050 they will use more oil and paper than
world currently produces, 70% lakes polluted, 16/20 world dirtiest cities Chinese, 20% live on less than a dollar a day.
Cities
1900 only London and Paris in 2010 over 400. Shanty towns formed when LEDC's develop quickly. Countries north of
brantt line make up only 25% of slums. Rio Rochina home to 200000, one of 800 favelas in Rio. Major gang warfare
dangerous high murder rates. Rochina now safer smalls banks and businesses. 1/5 people in Rio live in Favelas.
Developing minds foundation, two brothers trying to increase education and awareness and prevent young children
becoming involved in drug trafficking. Olympics and World Cup trying to clean up police station in every Favela limit
gangs. Road names, electricity areas being improved. Mumbai, India's richest city contributes 33% of tax. Dharavi home
to 1 million people. Productive area small businesses 80% of waste is recycled. 10 people die each day on overcrowded
trains. Clean up set to cost £1.1b. London is trying to become a sustainable city congestion charge £8 a day. Recycling
initiatives increasing, Enfield 30% however EU target is 40%. Barclays bike scheme public transport oyster cards 300
hydro buses regeneration of derelict areas enforced green belt.
Population English fertility rate 1.7, Replacement level 2.1. By 2040 only two workers for every person over 60. In
china one child policy means 5 million more boys than girls (people used to abort girls in favour for boys). 25% of
population in UK are at retirement age. Amount of women not having children increased from 11% in 1940 to 22% in
2000. 1 million emigrate to spain, 80000 retired.

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The World at Risk
Hydrometeorological flood, drought, storm surges, hurricanes and bushfires.
Geophysical Tectonic e.g. earthquake, tsunami, volcanoes. Movement e.g. landslides.…read more

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California suffers floods due to heavy rain 90% of California's floods are through river flooding caused by excess rain.
Sacrament river 1995 killed 20 billion cost 2 billion dollars . California also experiences fires, driven by hot dry winds
and low humidity. 1970 Laguna was devastated by fire.
California capacity Eighth largest economy in the world, contribute 13% of Americas GDP.…read more

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Built
as a result of 1953 storm low pressure weather system and high winds on surface of ocean. Storm surge effect 1400 km
of coastline storm waves over 6metres high 30000 evacuated and 24000 homes seriously damaged areas of London hit
due to poor sea defences 300 from UK lost their lives.
Manmade and natural global warming:
Natural: sun spots changing levels of solar output occurring for centuries works in cycles and can effect global
temperature.…read more

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Alaska are now vulnerable to flooding. 80% of inuits still hunt fish which are decliing in numbers(80% of
fish types are declining) 70% of inuit income is from hunting so declining stocks massive effect. Also cannot hunt their
own food, imported goods are expensive would cost a million and not as healthy as original diet, but protein is vital to
ensure they survive the cold.…read more

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Mitigation policies are meant to delay reduce or prevent climate change. Such as cutting c02 emissions. The IPCC's 4th
assessment emphasises the importance of mitigation.
· Its plans are that we currently have to Improve energy supply and distribution efficiency fuel switching from
coal to gas or other renewable resources
· More fuel efficient vehicles
· More efficient electrical appliances, improved cook stoves, improved insulation passive and active solar design
for heating and cooling alternative refrigeration fluids, recovery and recycle of fluorinated gases.…read more

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Mitigation:
Tornado damage prevention (MEDC) No way to actively prevent a tornado from occurring, so to prevent
the damage houses must be reinforced to withstand fierce winds. People build storm cellars and reinforce houses
with metal and plywood, to keep the houses structure from falling. Make sure any heavy objects like cabinets and
bookshelves are bolted to the walls to prevent them falling and injuring people.…read more

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Improving early warning systems and shelters, banning urban growth in
areas of flood risk and improving santiation so water infections after flooding can be reduced.
Volcano in an MEDC: Mt St Helens
53 of the 57 killed (very high number for MEDC) were in areas considered `safe' by exclusion zones. USGS only advice
couldn't implement rules to clear people away from rivers which is where lahars formed and killed most the people.
Unusual not vertical eruption. Most volcanoes in MEDC wouldn't kill any.…read more

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San Francisco Development
In 1906 earthquake magnitude was 7.9, 150 subsequent fires destroyed 80% of the city death toll over 3000. Measures
to restrict impact of earthquakes each house equipped with a survival kit including torch, water, disinfectant, radio,
batteries, shoes, money, helmet, medication and a fire extinguisher. Education of civilians and disaster preparedness has
also been improved. Simple precautions taken in homes heavy objects such a bookshelves are bolted to the walls and
beds are placed away from windows (minimising damage injuries and deaths).…read more

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