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Unit 1 | Causes of Disease
1.1 Pathogens
Interface ­ a surface or boundary which links the two systems, i.e. the external environment with the
internal environment of the body (skin); these are common types of entry for pathogenic microorganisms

Microorganism ­ single-celled organism that is too small to be…

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Reduction ­ a chemical reaction involving the gain of electrons

2.3 Carbohydrates ­ disaccharides and polysaccharides
Condensation ­ giving out of water in reactions; a glycosidic bond is formed

Disaccharide ­ a pair of monosaccharides combined together by a peptide bond

Polysaccharide ­ monosaccharides combined in much larger numbers; insoluble…

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2.8 Enzyme inhibition

Metabolic pathway ­ a series of reactions in which each step is catalysed by an enzyme

End-product inhibition ­ maintenance of the level of any chemical at a relatively constant level
by making the same chemical act as an inhibitor of an enzyme at the start of…

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Rough Endoplasmic reticulum (RER) ­ covered in ribosomes; folds and processes proteins that have
been made at the ribosomes

Golgi apparatus ­ a group of fluid-filled sacs; processes and packages new lipids and proteins; also makes

Microvilli ­ found on cells involved in processes like absorption; increase the surface…

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3.8 Active Transport
Active Transport ­ the movement of molecules or ions into or out of a cell from a region of lower
concentration to a region of higher concentration using energy and carrier molecules

3.9 Absorption in the small intestine
Villi ­ finger-like projections with thin walls lined with…

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Pulmonary ventilation (dm3 min-1) ­ total volume of air that is moved into the lungs during one minute

Tidal volume (dm3) ­ volume of air normally taken in at each breath when the body is at rest

Ventilation rate (min-1) ­ number of breaths taken in one minute

4.4 Lung…

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Myogenic (cardiac muscle) ­ contraction initiated from within the muscle itself rather than by nerve

SAN (Sinoatrial node) ­ distinct group of cells that determine the rhythm of the heart beat by passing a
wave of electrical activity

AVN (Atrioventricular node) ­ second group of cells that lie between…

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Phagocytes ­ type of white blood cells that ingest and destroy the pathogen by phagocytosis

Histamine ­ causes dilation of the blood vessels and speeds up delivery of phagocytes to the site of

6.3 T cells and cell-mediated immunity
Antigen ­ an organism or substance, usually a protein that…


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