AS AQA Sociology - Education Keywords

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Anti-school subculture ­ those who reject the school's values and try to seek status
Banding ­ a form of streaming
Collectivism ­ valuing being a part of a group more than succeeding as an individual
Colour-blind teachers ­ teachers who believe all pupils are equal but in practice allow racism to go unchallenged
Compensatory education ­ government education policies that seek to tackle the problem of under-achievement
by providing extra support and funding to schools and families in deprived areas
Comprehensive schools ­ schools that are non-selective and where all children attend the same type of secondary
school (introduced in 1965)
Conformists (Sewell) ­ pupils who were keen to succeed, accepted the school's values and had friends from other
ethnic groups
Correspondence theory ­ Bowles and Gintis' concept describing the way that the organisation and control of
schools mirrors or `corresponds to' the workplace in capitalist society
Cream-skimming ­ selecting higher ability students who gain the best results and cost less to teach
Cultural capital ­ the knowledge, attitudes, values, language, tastes and abilities that the middle class transmit to
their children
Cultural deprivation ­ the theory that many working class and black children are inadequately socialised and
therefore lack the `right' culture needed for educational success
Deferred gratification ­ making sacrifices now for greater rewards later (middle-class culture)
Deviance ­ behaviour that does not conform to the norms of society or group
Educational triage ­ the process whereby schools sort pupils into `hopeless cases', `those who will pass anyway'
and `those with potential to pass', and then concentrate their efforts on the last of these groups as a way to boost
the school's exam league position ­ sorting may be based on stereotypical ideas about pupils' ability.
Elaborated code ­ the speech code typically used by the middle class ­ has a wider vocabulary and is based on
longer, grammatically more complex sentences
Ethnocentric­ seeing or judging things in a biased way from the viewpoint of one particular culture
Exam league tables ­ a table which ranks school's exam performance
External factors ­ factors outside the education system such as the influence of home and family, background and
wider society
Fatalism ­ a belief in fate ­ that `whatever will be will be' and there is nothing you can do to change your status
Feminisation of education ­ the belief that the school celebrates qualities more closely associated with girls, and
has stopped nurturing `masculine' traits
Feminism ­ a sociological perspective and political movement that focuses on women's oppression and the
struggle to end it
Fordism ­ a type of industrial production based on a detailed division of labour, using closely supervised,
low-skilled workers and assembly-line technology to mass produce standardised goods

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Funding formula ­ a policy which provides schools with money for each pupil they take on
Gender ­ the social and cultural characteristics of men and women ­ learned through socialisation
GIST ­ Girls Into Science and Technology ­ encourage girls to take up non-traditional careers in these sectors
Globalisation ­ the idea that the world is becoming increasingly interconnected and barriers are disappearing
Hidden curriculum ­ The things that are learnt outside the formal education system often acquired through the
everyday workings of the…read more

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Parentocracy ­ literally `rule by parents'. Associated with the marketised education systems which are based on the
parental choice in schools.
Polarisation ­ a process which results in the creation of two opposite extremes.
Post-Fordism ­ a type of industrial production. A highly skilled adaptable skilled workforce combined with
technology allows the production to change to consumer demands.…read more

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Universalistic standards ­ impersonal rules and standards that apply to everyone in school and wider society
Vocational training ­ transmitting knowledge skills and attitudes needed for a particular career…read more


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