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Internal factors ­
inside school and educational
system teachers and pupils, different
schools etc.
External factors ­ outside school and
educational system wider society, family etc.

Class differences in education.
Cultural deprivation
Intellectual development ­ parents from
different classes choose different toys,
which may or may not stimulate learning…

Page 2

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Educational/economic capital ­ being equipped for the curriculum and the middle class have `selection by mortgage'
through caption areas ­ Leach & Campos
Gerwitz: Marketisation and parental choice privileged skilled choosers=middle class, disconnected local
choosers=working class, semiskilled choosers=ambitious working class.

Page 3

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Labelling in education.
Secondary schools ­ ideal pupil middle class, well mannered, well dressed, obedient Becker
Primary schools ­ Working class want to learn later than middle class (Mapledeen school) ­ Sharp & Green
Selffulfilling prophecies ­ Fake test of spurters showing they have good results and will be able…

Page 4

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Ethnic differences in education. (External)
Cultural deprivation Intellectual and linguistic skills ­ lack of intellectual stimulation and enriching experiences from
parents through toys and trips, lack of standard English speech
Attitudes and values ­ AfroCaribbean: lack of motivation, Other cultures: ambition, sacrifices
Family structure and parental support
AfroCaribbean: lone parent,…

Page 5

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Gender differences in education. (Internal)
Boys ­ active, non conformist, instrumental role
Girls ­ passive, conformist, expressive role

Girls do better in education due to feminism, changes in families, employments and attitudes (Sharpe 70's ­ 90's:
changing priorities 70's family ­ 90's careers)
Equal opportunities (impact of feminism) ­

Page 6

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