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INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES - ABONORMALITY…read more

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INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES - ABONORMALITY
Assumptions & Key features
When the same symptoms frequently occur together, they represent a syndrome or disorder.…read more

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INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES - ABONORMALITY…read more

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INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES - ABONORMALITY
Assumptions & Key features
UNRESOLVED CONFLICTS
Abnormal behaviour is a result of unresolved childhood conflicts. Conflicts occur between the id and
superego, and are managed by the ego, using ego defence mechanisms. Disturbed behaviour can
occur when ego defences are overused
EARLY EXPERIENCES
Abnormal behaviour may be the result of childhood experiences because the immature ego is also
unable to deal with them.…read more

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INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES - ABONORMALITY
Assumptions & Key features
STRENGTHS LIMITATIONS
EFFECTIVE ­ Bergin (10,00 patients), FALSE MEMORIES ­ Critics claim danger in helping
found that 80% benefited from patients recover repressed memories.…read more

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INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES - ABONORMALITY
Assumptions & Key features
STRENGTHS LIMITATIONS
Challenge belief systems, change Faulty thinking may be the effect, not the cause. It is not clear
the way the client thinks ­ potentially which comes first, e.g.…read more

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INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES - ABONORMALITY
Assumptions & Key features
STRENGTHS LIMITATIONS
Client is actively involved in their Involves motivation and commitment from client to be
own treatment, compared to drug successful
therapy
Not suitable for all. Some don't want the direct sort of advice
Effective ­ Engels et al (1993) dispensed by REBT therapists
meta-analysis found REBT effective
for OCD and social phobia Irrational environments continue beyond the therapeutic situation,
e.g. humble boss, bullying partner.…read more

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INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES - ABONORMALITY
Assumptions & Key features
STRENGTH LIMITATIONS
S
Scientific & testable. Can't account for all human behaviour ­ However, much of
Simplicity of the model human behaviour is more complex than this. Behaviourism
makes it easier to conduct disregards thoughts/emotions and is not a complete explanation
research to test how
association and rewards
Exaggerates the importance of environment ­ as well as
affect behaviour.…read more

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INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES - ABONORMALITY
Assumptions & Key features
STRENGTHS LIMITATIONS
Appropriate for anxiety. Patient plays an Treating symptoms, not the cause, so may
active role. Less effort than psychoanalysis result in symptom substitution ­ SD may appear
to resolve problems by reducing or eliminating
A therapy supported by research evidence symptoms but other symptoms may appear
using well-established sciences
Not so effective for some phobias ­ that
Effective for a range of anxiety disorders.…read more

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