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INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES - ABONORMALITY

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INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES - ABONORMALITY

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INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES - ABONORMALITY




Assumptions & Key features
When the same symptoms frequently occur together, they represent a syndrome or disorder. The
cause or `aetiology' may be one or more of the following:
Brain injury
Infection
Neurotransmitters
Genetics

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INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES - ABONORMALITY

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INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES - ABONORMALITY




Assumptions & Key features


UNRESOLVED CONFLICTS
Abnormal behaviour is a result of unresolved childhood conflicts. Conflicts occur between the id and
superego, and are managed by the ego, using ego defence mechanisms. Disturbed behaviour can
occur when ego defences are overused


EARLY EXPERIENCES
Abnormal behaviour may…

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INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES - ABONORMALITY




Assumptions & Key features


STRENGTHS LIMITATIONS
EFFECTIVE ­ Bergin (10,00 patients), FALSE MEMORIES ­ Critics claim danger in helping
found that 80% benefited from patients recover repressed memories. Loftus (1995)
psychoanalysis compared to 65% from found little evidence to support assumption that
electric therapies patient can…

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INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES - ABONORMALITY




Assumptions & Key features


STRENGTHS LIMITATIONS
Challenge belief systems, change Faulty thinking may be the effect, not the cause. It is not clear
the way the client thinks ­ potentially which comes first, e.g. depression may lead to negative thinking
powerful

Situational factors may be overlooked…

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INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES - ABONORMALITY




Assumptions & Key features


STRENGTHS LIMITATIONS
Client is actively involved in their Involves motivation and commitment from client to be
own treatment, compared to drug successful
therapy

Not suitable for all. Some don't want the direct sort of advice
Effective ­ Engels et al (1993) dispensed…

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INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES - ABONORMALITY




Assumptions & Key features

STRENGTH LIMITATIONS
S
Scientific & testable. Can't account for all human behaviour ­ However, much of
Simplicity of the model human behaviour is more complex than this. Behaviourism
makes it easier to conduct disregards thoughts/emotions and is not a complete explanation
research…

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INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES - ABONORMALITY






Assumptions & Key features

STRENGTHS LIMITATIONS
Appropriate for anxiety. Patient plays an Treating symptoms, not the cause, so may
active role. Less effort than psychoanalysis result in symptom substitution ­ SD may appear
to resolve problems by reducing or eliminating
A therapy supported by research evidence…

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