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AS REVISION NOTES ­ PLATO AND ARISTOTLE
PLATOS ANALOGY OF THE CAVE
An allegory is a story that has deeper or hidden meanings. Representative of real events and world views that
Plato wanted to express.. It is metaphoric, similar in nature to a parable, like Jesus would have taught. Images…

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Main points gained from the analogy...

1. Our empirical knowledge, gained from senses, is flawed and is not showing us reality. Appearances are
deceptive.
2. After the philosopher emerges into the real world, his reasoning leads him to philosophical
understanding of the truth. (A Priori)
3. The escapee has some…

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PLATOS THEORY OF THE FORMS
Heraclitus, a Greek Philosopher developed a doctrine of change believing this was central to the universe
"Nothing endured but change"

Plato was a dualist ­ he was a believer in two realities, separate from each other. He believed in a Realm of
Forms (reality), an…

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Knowledge of Good is highest knowledge humans capable of.
Only the philosopher can make judgments based on a priori knowledge. (thinks independently of senses
­ can see into world of Forms where Good is). Ordinary people struggle to see past illusions.

Evaluation

Can't prove this real, immutable world of Forms…

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ARISTOTLE'S UNDERSTANDING OF CAUSALITY
Both a critic and pupil of Plato. He was an empiricist ­ philosophy based on what we can observe (A Posterior
knowledge). His ideas of causations are found in his books `Metaphysics, Book 12.'

True Knowledge = Not two separate realms. The world we live in…

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coming-to-be is also from what-is potentially but not actually" ­Aristotle, The Metaphysics.

Aristotle went on to `categorise' different substances, many of which are brought about or changed by the Four
Causes. He believed that there were three types of substance.

Substances which are evident but will decay/die I.e. animals
Substances…

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Vengeful ­ destroying the city
First, uncaused cause Unchanging
of Sodom
Substance Outside time/ space Omni-Benevolent
Creator of everything Unaware of own power God changes

Physical through the person of
Eternal No Divine plan for the Earth
Jesus

The efficient/ final cause Aware he is powerful
Has a divine plan…

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