AQA Psychopathology Whole Topic Flashcards

what are the 4 definitions of abnormality
deviation from social norms, failure to function adequately, deviation from ideal mental health, statistical infrequency
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describe 'deviation from social norms' definition of abnormality
behaving in a way that goes against normal unspoken rules and laws that guide society. things that society considers normal and acceptable. e.g. not wearing clothes in public
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describe 'failure to function adequately' definition of abnormality
being unable to cope with ordinary demands of day-to-day life, occurs when the person is unable to maintain basic standards of nutrition and hygiene
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describe 'deviation from ideal mental health' definition of abnormality
when the person does not meet criteria of good mental health which include positive self attitude, self actualisation, autonomy, effective stress strategies and an accurate perception of reality and flexibility
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describe the 'statistical infrequency' definition of abnormality
when a persons trait, thinking or behaviour is classified as abnormal if it is rare or statistically unusual
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give a strength of the deviation from social norms definition of abnormality
it acknowledges the idea that behaviour seen as abnormal in one setting is regarded as normal in another. e.g. what is considered abnormal in public may be normal in a beach (nudity)
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give a weakness of the deviation from social norms definition of abnormality
social norms may vary from culture to culture. one cultural group may label something as abnormal but this may be social norm in a different culture
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give 2 strengths of the failure to function adequately definition of abnormality
it is a useful criteria for assessing abnormality as it acknowledges and takes in to account subjective experiences. also, most people seeking clinical help believe they are suffering from psychological problems that interfere with ability to functio
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give a weakness of the failure to function adequately definition of abnormality
psychopaths, people with dangerous personality disorders can cause great harm and yet still appear 'normal'
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give a strength of the deviation from ideal mental health definition of abnormality
it provides a holistic definition, covering a broad range of criteria. focuses on the individual as a whole rather than focusing on specific areas of their behaviour
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give a weakness of the deviation from ideal mental health definition of abnormality
it sets unrealistic high standards for mental health- very few of us meet all the criteria meaning we are all considered abnormal.
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give a strength of the statistical infrequency definition of abnormality
once a method of collecting data about a characteristic has been agreed. it becomes an objective way of diagnosing abnormality as it relies on real, unbiased data
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give a weakness of the statistical infrequency definition of abnormality
unusual characteristics can be beneficial. we don't view a high IQ score as being undesirable that requires treatment. a rare characteristic is statistically abnormal but it is desired and doesn't require treatment
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give an emotional characteristic of a phobia?
high anxiety, produces an immediate fear response
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give a behavioural characteristic of a phobia
effort made to avoid feared object. panic, avoidance and endurance
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give a cognitive characteristic of a phobia
cognitive distortion of reality. selective attention to the phobic stimulus. irrational beliefs
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what are the three subtypes of phobias
simple phobias, social phobias and agoraphobia
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explain operant conditioning in terms of the behavioural approach to explaining phobias
Phobic person avoids their phobia, which reduces their anxiety. so negatively reinforcing their avoidance behaviour. increasing likelihood of repeating avoidance behaviour. as a result, person not able to realise their phobia is irrational
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explain classical conditioning in terms of the behavioural approach to explaining phobias
unconditioned stimulus that causes fear becomes associated with neutral stimulus. so that the NS by itself causes a fear response. it is based on Pavlovs ideas where dog learned to salivate to ring the bell.
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outline Watson and Raynors study on classical conditioning
studied little Albert who showed no fear response to a white rat. a metal bar was struck with hammer behind his head each time he reached for rat causing loud noise. led him to acquire a rat phobia which he generalised to other white fury objects
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outline a draw back on Watson and Rayners study into classical conditioning
unethical, case study- only done on one person- cannot be generalised
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explain gin Mowrers two process model
acquisition of phobias by classical conditioning and social learning theory. and maintenance upheld through operant conditioning
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explain systematic desensitisation in terms of the behaviourist approach to treating phobias
it is a behavioural therapy aimed to gradually reduce phobic anxiety through cc. therapy involves the sufferer pairing their feared object with relaxation. client and therapist create a hierarchy of fears from least to most frightening.
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explain flooding in terms of the behaviourist approach to treating phobias
involves immediate exposure to most extreme form of their phobic stimulus. patients are unable to avoid (negatively reinforce) their phobia and through continuous expose, their anxiety levels eventually decrease as patents learns that it is harmless
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give some behavioural symptoms of depression
loss of energy, social impairment (reduced levels of social interaction) weight changes, poor personal hygiene, sleep pattern disturbance (constant insomnia)
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give some emotional symptoms of depression
loss of enthusiasm, constant depressed mood, worthlessness (feel reduced worth/ feelings of guilt)
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give some cognitive symptoms of depression
delusions (generally concerned with guilt), reduced concentration, thoughts of death, poor memory
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what is beck cognitive theory of depression?
faulty information processing - see negative aspects of situation blow small problems out of proportion. negative self schemas - if our schema is negative, see ourselves in a negative way. negative triad- negative view of the world, future & self
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what is Ellis cognitive approach to explaining depression?
ABC model. believes good mental health leads to rational thinking. poor mental health leads to irrational thoughts which interferes with happiness. an activating event leads to certain beliefs (unhealthy) causing consequences such as depression
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explain the 'A' in Ellis ABC model for explaining depression
Activating event- irrational thoughts are triggered by external / negative events, which trigger irrational beliefs. e.g. failing an important test.
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explain the 'B' in Ellis ABC model for explaining depression
Beliefs- identified irrational beliefs e.g. musturbation --> wanting to always succeed.
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explain the 'C' in Ellis ABC model for explaining depression
consequences- activating event trigger irrational beliefs, there are emotional and behavioural consequences.
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outline some strengths of the cognitive approach to explaining depression
has application to therapy- like REBT and cognitive behavioural therapy. research evidence to support it - Bourey et al found patients with depression were ore likely to misinterpret information negatively through cognitive bias.
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outline a weakness of the cognitive approach to explaining depression
it does not explain the origins of irrational thought. it is unclear if the negative thought causes depression or whether the persons depression leads to the negative mindset.
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describe becks cognitive therapy to treating depression
it aims to identify automatic negative thoughts about world, self and future. patient and therapist works together to challenge irrational thoughts by discussing evidence for and against them. patient encouraged to test reliability and given homework
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describe Ellis rational emotive behavioural therapy (REBT) to treating depression
Ellis ABCDE- D for dispute and E for effect. patient talks about thoughts, therapists identifies them and challenges them through vigorous argument to change the irrational belief so break the link between negative life events and depression.
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EVALUATION- cognitive approach to treating depression- What did March et al find
CBT was as effective as anti-depressants
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describe the neural explanations of OCD
low levels of serotonin are associated with OCD. Drugs that increase the levels of serotonin have been found to reduce OCD symptoms. there is also high levels of activity in the orbitofrontal cortex
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describe the genetic explanations of OCD
specific genes increase the vulnerability toOCD. the COMT gene is associated with the production and regulation of the neurotransmitter dopamine. high levels of dopamine are associated with OCD. the SERTgene is associated with serotonin- lower=OCD
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how can you use the use of antidepressants to support the biological approach to explaining OCD
Antidepressants like SSRIs work by increasing the level of activity of the neurotransmitter serotonin and these are effective in reducing the symptoms of OCD.
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explain the use of drug therapy in biological treatment for OCD
therapy assumes there is a chemical imbalance in the brain. can be corrected by drugs, which can either increase of decrease the level of neurotransmitter in the brain. agonist- increase levels. antagonist- decrease levels
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explain the use of SSRIs (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors) in biological treatment for OCD
SSRIs work on increasing certain neurotransmitters in the brain by preventing the reabsorption of serotonin. by preventing this, SSRIs increase its levels in the synapse and continue to stimulate the postsynaptic neuron
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give an alternative to SSRIs
Benzodiazepine- increase GABA to slow down the central nervous system to lower anxiety. Tricyclics
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describe 'deviation from social norms' definition of abnormality

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behaving in a way that goes against normal unspoken rules and laws that guide society. things that society considers normal and acceptable. e.g. not wearing clothes in public

Card 3

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describe 'failure to function adequately' definition of abnormality

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Card 4

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describe 'deviation from ideal mental health' definition of abnormality

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Card 5

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describe the 'statistical infrequency' definition of abnormality

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