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Physics Kinetic Theory
A.Q.A.- Core Science Physics
Solid Liquid Gas
Particle arrangement Close together with No bonds but close No bonds, not close
bonds can only vibrate. together, can move together can move at
easily and randomly. ease and randomly
Properties Fixed shape and Fixed volume but, No fixed volume or
volume. Can't be takes shape of shape and can be
squished. Not able to container. Can be poured.
be poured. poured
Conduction is the transfer of heat through solids
Conduction works best in metals
Metals contain free electrons which gain energy when they gain heat, they are then able to
pass kinetic energy along the metal.
Metals are therefore good conductors
Other materials don't contain free electrons.
They are bad conductors but good insulators.
Insulators keep heat in.
Convection is heat transfer in liquids and gases (fluids)
Convection can happen because as particles get warmer they become less dense and rise.
The warmer particles are then at the top of the liquid/gas although the thing heating the
liquid is at the bottom.
The particles at the bottom rise as they are less dense and the colder particles fall.
This is how the whole liquid/gas gets heated.
Radiation is the heat transfer that doesn't require any particles
All things give off Infrared radiation
The warmer an object is the more radiation is given off
Dark, matt surfaces are good emitters and absorbers of infrared radiation
Light, shiny surfaces are good reflectors of radiation but poor emitters and absorbers.
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Condensation and Evaporation
Evaporation is when a liquid turns into a gas
Particles have different energies in a liquid and therefore some escape and become
The particles left over in the liquid have a lower average kinetic energy than before.
The liquid cools down
Condensation is when a gas turns into a liquid
Particles in gases have different energies
When a particle doesn't have enough energy to be a gas it condenses and forms
bonds with the other particles.
This creates energy.…read more