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Space ­ Satellites.
Types of satellite:
· Geostationary ­ rotate above the equator, take
24 hours to orbit the Earth, and have a higher
orbit than polar satellites. Used for
communications.
· Polar ­ orbit above the two poles, take 2 or 3
hours and the whole Earth can be covered in a
day. Have a much lower orbit than
geostationary satellites. Used for monitoring.…read more

Slide 3

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Space ­ The life of a low mass
star.
· All stars started the same way ­ they were
formed by clouds of gas and dust.
· This matter joins together until it gets hotter
and denser and this is called a protostar.
· When the star is hot enough for nuclear fusion
to take place, it gives out light ­ a main
sequence star.
· Main sequence stars are stable because the
inwards gravitational pressure is equal to the
outwards radiation pressure.…read more

Slide 4

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Space ­ The life of a low mass
star.
· When a star runs out of hydrogen nuclei, it swells
out, and cools down. It becomes a red giant.
· At this stage, lighter elements fuse together to
form heavier elements (but lighter than iron
because fusing iron requires too much energy).
· When there are no more light elements, the star
collapses, heats up, and becomes a white dwarf.
These are extremely hot and dense.
· Finally, it becomes a cold black dwarf.
PROTOSTAR -> MAIN SEQUENCE -> RED GIANT
-> WHITE DWARF -> BLACK DWARF.…read more

Slide 5

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Space ­ The life of a high mass
star.
· All stars started the same way ­ they were
formed by clouds of gas and dust.
· This matter joins together until it gets hotter
and denser and this is called a protostar.
· When the star is hot enough for nuclear fusion
to take place, it gives out light ­ a main
sequence star.
· Main sequence stars are stable because the
inwards gravitational pressure is equal to the
outwards radiation pressure.…read more

Slide 6

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Space ­ the life of a high mass
star.
· When a star runs out of hydrogen nuclei, it swells
out, and cools down. It becomes a red giant.
· At this stage, lighter elements fuse together to
form heavier elements (lighter than iron).
· This star then collapses and explodes in a huge
supernova, which forms the heavy elements (by
the immense pressure of the collapsing) and
spreads them around the universe. This
compresses the core of the star into a neutron
star.
· If a star has sufficient mass, it will form a black
hole.
PROTOSTAR -> MAIN SEQUENCE -> RED GIANT…read more

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