AQA Physics 2

Everything you need for the AQA Physics 2 exam

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  • Created on: 21-05-12 16:18
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Speed is a measure of how fast an object is moving.
Speed (m/s) = Distance (m) /Time (s)
Distance-time graphs
The slope on a distance time graph represents the speed of an object,
the steeper the slope the greater the speed.
Speed = change in Y/change in X
Velocity describes the speed of an object in a given direction.
Acceleration of an object is the rate at which velocity changes
Acceleration (m/ s2 ) = change in velocity (m/s)/time taken for
change (s)
Acceleration is measured in m/s2
Deceleration is negative acceleration (slowing down).
Velocity-Time Graphs
The slope on a velocity time graph represents the acceleration of an
object, the steeper the slope the greater the acceleration.
The area underneath the like represents the total distance.
Acceleration = change in Y/change in X
Forces are pushes or pulls.
They are measured in newtons.
A stationery object resting on a surface exerts a downward force called
weight. While the surface it rests on exerts an upward force called
When an object is stationary these forces are equal and opposite.
When a number of forces are acting on an object they can be added
together to produce a single force called the resultant force.
Friction occurs when ­
o An object moves through a medium e.g. air or water.
o Surfaces slide past each other.
Friction works against an object in an opposite direction.
Stopping Distance
The stopping distance of a vehicle depends on ­
o The thinking distance ­ distance traveled during the driver's
reaction time.

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The stopping distance ­ distance traveled under the breaking
The overall stopping distance increases when ­
o The vehicle is traveling faster.
o Adverse weather conditions e.g. wet or icy roads.
o The driver's reaction e.g. drugs, alcohol, tiredness etc.
o The condition of the vehicle.
The greater the speed of the vehicle the greater the breaking force
Stopping distance = thinking distance + stopping distance.
Forces affecting movement
The movement of an object depends on the forces acting on it.…read more

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The air resistance increases until it is equal too the weight,
meaning the resultant force is now 0 so the falling speed become
constant, this is terminal velocity.
When a force moves an object, work is done on the object meaning the
transfer of energy.
Work done (J) = Energy Transferred (J)
Work done (J) = force applied (N) x distance moved in direction of
force (m).…read more

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Increase the momentum of a moving object.
o Decrease or stop the momentum of a moving object.
The extent of the change in momentum depends on ­
o The size of the force
o The length of time the force is acting on the object.…read more

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Solid smoke particles become negatively charged as they pass by
a negatively charged metal grid.
2. The particles are then attracted to the positive collecting plates
as negative charges attract.
3. The solid smoke particles are then collected when the collecting
plates are knocked.
The Photocopier ­
Discharge of static electricity
A charge conductor can be discharge by connecting it to an earth with a
conductor.…read more

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This flow of electrons through a solid conductor is called an electric
Metal conducts electricity well as electrons from their atoms can move
freely throughout the metal structure.
The greater the charge on an isolated object, the greater the potential
difference between the object and earth. If the potential difference
between the object and nearby earthed conductor becomes high
enough, the air molecules can ionize and there is a spark and discharge
will occur.…read more

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An electric current will flow through an electrical component if there is
a potential difference (voltage) across the ends of the component.
In a circuit ­
o The potential different is measured in volts (V) using a voltmeter
connected in parallel.
o The current is measured in amperes (A) using an ammeter
connected in series.
The amount of current that flows through the component depends on ­
o The potential difference across the component.
o The resistance of the component.…read more

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Variable resistor
Light dependent resistor
Resistance is a measure of how hard it is to get a current though a
component at a particular potential difference.
Current-potential difference graphs show how the current through the
component varies with the potential difference across it.
Potential difference (V) = current (A) x resistance ()
The resistance of a thermistor depends on the
temperature. Its resistance decreases as the
temperature of the thermistor increases.…read more

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As long as the temperature of the resistor stays
constant, the current through the resistor is
directly proportional to the voltage across the
resistor. This is regardless of which direction the
current is flowing.
As the temperature of the filament lamp increases,
and the bulb gets brighter, then the resistance of
the lamp increases. This is regardless of which
direction the current is flowing.
A diode allows a current to flow through it in
one direction only.…read more

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The total current in the main circuit is equal to the sum of the currents
through the separate currents.
The potential difference for each component is equal to the potential
difference of the battery and the other components.
A direct current (d.c.) always flows in the same direction. Calls and
batteries supply a direct current.
An alternating current (a.c.) changes the direction of flow back and forth
The frequency is the number of complete cycles of reversal per second.…read more


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