AQA GCSE Physics1B Electromagnetic Waves Revision

 The notes made in this PowerPoint are taken from the AQA text book, some parts have been copied word for word, but I have basically taken the main parts needed, so you can basically use this for last minute recap revision.


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Electromagnetic waves are electric
Gamma and magnetic disturbances that
X-rays transfer energy from one place to
another. They all travel at the same
Ultraviolet (UV) speed through space or in a vacuum.
Visible Light
All electromagnetic waves
Infra-red travel at the same speed:
Microwaves 300, 000, 000 m/s
Radio Waves
· Frequency ­ the number of waves passing one point
per second
· Wavelength ­ the distance from one wave peak to
Wave speed = wave length x
frequency…read more

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Gamma and X-rays
Both x-rays and gamma rays have a high
frequency and also have a high energy and
they are able to pass through materials.
Type Can and cant pass through Uses Extra Info
X-rays The can pass through soft Medical: produce images of Can cause living cells to mutate which
human tissue without much fractured bones leads to cancer. X-ray technicians
being absorbed. They are Non-medical: used to scan have to wear protective clothing
absorbed by bone tissue. luggage and people who pass which is lined with lead. Wearing this
through airport security limits the amount of radiation they are
exposed to.
Gamma Rays Can pass through all types of Low doses can be used in High doses of gamma can kill all
human tissue, including bones medical tracers to show blood types of cells, so this means that
but without much absorption. flow in the body. They are gamma rays can be used to sterilise
absorbed by thick lead which can objects, by killing bacteria. They can
be used to shield people and also be used to treat cancer by
things from them. radiotherapy. Here the cancer cells are
killed by the gamma rays.…read more

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White Light and UV
White light is made up of the colours of the
Red, Orange, Yellow, Green, Blue, Indigo and Violet
Ultraviolet light has a shorter wavelength than
light, it harms the skin and the eyes
Ultraviolet makes some chemicals emit light
Reflect- when an incident ray is reflected in the
opposite direction to what it came from
Absorb- when a substance or material absorbs the
wave and it causes it to heat up as energy is gained
Emit- something that gives out the waves in the
first place
Transmit- something that gives out waves after…read more

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Infra-red radiation
All objects emit infra-red radiation
Infra-red is absorbed by the skin and it damages
skin cells because it heats them up
Infra-red devices
Heaters ­ in grills, toasters and electric heaters all
emit IR to heat objects
Infra-red cameras ­ used in medicine to detect
"hot-spots" on the body surface
Infra-red scanners ­ see people and animals in
Optical fibres ­ in communications systems, used
instead of light because it is absorbed less by the
glass fibres
Remote control handsets ­ for TV and video…read more

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Microwave Radiation
Between radio waves and infra-red
radiation in the electromagnetic spectrum
Can be used for:
Communications ­ can pass through the
atmosphere and reach satellites orbiting the
Earth, can be used to "beam" signals from
one place to another, because they don't
spread out as much as radio waves
Heating food in microwave ovens ­ heat the
food from the inside aswell as from the
outside, the penetrate substances like food…read more

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