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Atomic Structure and Bonding (F)

Atoms, Molecules and Ions.
AN ATOM is the smallest particle of an element. They cannot be split into smaller particles in
chemical reactions. Iron is made of iron atoms (Fe). Sulphur is made of sulphur atoms (S)
A MOLECULE is a small group of atoms…

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U 92 92 92 146 238

Electron Structure
The electrons orbit the nucleus in 'shells'. These can hold the following numbers of electrons:
The innermost shell can contain up to 2 electrons
The next shell can contain up to 8 electrons
The next shell can contain up to 8 electrons…

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Giant Ionic Structures
Compounds of metals, such as sodium chloride (NaCl) or copper sulphate (CuSO4) are made
up of positive metal ions (e.g. Na+ ) and negative nonmetal ions (e.g. Cl).
The ions are arranged in a regular lattice so positive and negative ions are arranged
alternately in 3 dimensions.…

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Enzymes are biological catalysts.

Other examples of catalysts are:

Aluminium Oxide Cracking of Oil

Iron Manufacture
of ammonia
Catalysts are very valuable in chemical industry, since they can be reused and they provide a much
cheaper way of speeding up a reaction than heating, so providing cheaper goods.…

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The rate of a reaction can be measured and followed on a graph, e.g.

Curve A represents a reaction between powdered zinc and sulphuric acid, while curve B represents a
reaction between lumps of zinc and the same amount of sulphuric acid. You should note:
a) That a steeper curve…

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(Blue) (White)
If the hydrated copper sulphate is heated, it turns white as the water is given off. This requires energy
so the forward reaction is endothermic
When water is added to anhydrous copper sulphate, it turns blue and heat…

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Sodium Hydroxide: Making soap.

Electrolysis of Copper Sulphate Solution using Copper Electrodes

If copper sulphate (CuSO4) solution is electrolysed using copper electrodes instead of carbon

1. Copper dissolves away from the positive anode and
2. Copper is deposited at the negative cathode
3. The solution remains the same as…

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Sulphuric acid H2SO4
Hydrochloric acid HCl
Nitric acid HNO3

1) Bases react with and neutralise acids.
2) Metal oxides and metal hydroxides are bases
3) ALKALIS are soluble bases
4) Alkalis produce OH ions in water.

1) These are soluble and are therefore alkalis as well as bases…

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H+ + OH = H2O

Making salts

Method 1. Used to make sodium, potassium & ammonium salts. An acid is to react with an alkali.
1) The alkali is measured out using a pipette, indicator is added, and enough acid is
added from a burette to just change the colour…


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