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AQA GCSE Chemistry Unit 1

C 1: Fundamental ideas:

C 1.1. Atoms, elements and compounds:

· All substances are made up of atoms.
· Elements contain only one atom.
· Compounds contain more than one atom.
· An atom has a tiny nucleus in its centre, surrounded by electrons.


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· Limestone is made mainly of calcium carbonate.
· Limestone is widely used in the building industry.
· The calcium carbonate in limestone breaks down when we heat it strongly to make calcium oxide and carbon
dioxide. The reaction is called thermal decomposition.

C 2.2. Reaction of carbonates:

· Carbonates…

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o High carbon steels, which are very hard
o Stainless steels, which are resistant to corrosion.

C 3.3. Aluminum and titanium:

· Aluminum and titanium are useful because they are resistant to corrosion.
· Aluminum requires the electrolysis of molten aluminum oxide to extract it as it is too reactive…

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· When we burn hydrocarbon fuels in the air the carbon and hydrogen in the fuel are completely oxidized. They
produce carbon dioxide and water.
· Sulfur impurities in fuels burn to form sulfur dioxide which can cause acid rain.
· Changing the conditions in which we burn hydrocarbon fuels…

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· Smart polymers may have their properties changed by light, temperature or by other changes in their
· We are now recycling more plastics and finding new uses for them.

C 5.4. Plastic waste:

· Non-biodegradable plastics cause unsightly rubbish, can harm wildlife and take up space in landfill…

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· Vegetable oils are high in energy and provide nutrients. They are unsaturated and believed to be better for your
health than saturated animal fats and hydrogenated vegetable oils.
· Emulsifiers improve the texture of foods enabling oil and water to mix. This makes fatty food more palatable and

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