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AS English Language
{Language Frameworks ­ The Basics…read more

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Analysing a Text - GRASP
When given a piece of discourse, identify:
Genre ­ what kind of text it is e.g. leaflet, formal speech, newspaper
Register ­ type of language used that's appropriate for the
audience/context. Can also relate to the formality of the discourse
Audience ­ the listener or reader, how they are addressed (indirect,
direct, formally, informally)
Subject Matter ­ what the discourse is about, this will influence the
lexical choices and semantic field of the language
Purpose ­ what the speaker/writer is trying to achieve (inform,
persuade, instruct or entertain)…read more

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Seven Main Language Frameworks
Lexis · The vocabulary of a language
· There will be words within a text which share a similar topic or focus which is called a lexical
Semantics · The study of how meaning is created through words and phrases
· A word will have literal meaning as well as an associated one e.g. red the colour also connotes
danger or love
Grammar · System of rules that governs how words and sentences are constructed. There are 3 main parts
to grammar:
1. A system that groups words into classes according to their function e.g. verbs, adjectives,
nouns etc.
2. A system of rules about how these types of words function in relation to each other (syntax)
3. The individual units that make up whole words (morphology)
Phonology · Study of sounds ­ how they're pronounced and how they're combined to make words
· This includes non-verbal aspects of speech or prosody ­ features of spoken language such as
pace, stress, rhythm and intonation
Pragmatics · Also known as language in use. Its about how social conventions, context, personality and
relationships influence the choices people make about their language
Graphology · Study of appearance of the writing and the effect this has on a text
· Describe and analyse features such as typeface, position of it on the page and the relationships
between text and images
Discourse · An extended piece of spoken or written language made up of more than one utterance (in
spoken language) and more than one sentence (in written language)…read more

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Grammar ­ Word Classes
Word Class Function Example
Nouns `naming' words ­ person, place or thing London, book, Jill,
3 types ­ concrete, abstract and proper romance
Adjectives Describing words ­ often nouns but sometimes Large, sunny, pretty
Verbs Doing words Jump, read, eat
Adverbs Describe verbs (and sometimes adjectives and Steadily, incredibly,
other adverbs) sadly
Pronouns Take the place of nouns You, they, him, me, it
Conjunctions `Connecting' words And, or, but because
Prepositions Define relationships between words in terms of Before, underneath,
time, space and direction next to
Determiners Give specific kinds of information about a noun (e. A, the, two, his, few,
g. quantity or possession) those…read more

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Proper Nouns
Names of specific people (e.g.
William, Patel)
Names of specific places (e.g.
Names of specific brands (addidas,
Nouns Concrete
Things you can physically
touch or see (e.g. rock, table,
Common Concepts ­ e.g. truth
States e.g. childhood
Nouns Qualities e.g. honesty
Emotions e.g. - sadness
Groups of people, animals or
things (e.g. government, team,
audience…read more

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Nouns continued
Count nouns and Mass nouns
Count nouns ­ can be counted e.g. brick (one brick, two bricks etc.) Nouns
that form irregular plurals can be count nouns too (one mouse, two mice
Mass nouns ­ can't be counted, don't have a plural e.g. information
Some nouns can function as both, depending on context e.g. war is evil
(mass noun, war in general) the war is evil (count noun, specific war)
Modifying Nouns
Pre-modifiers ­ come before the noun, can have more than one e.g. the
dangerous bear or the very dangerous bear
Post-modifiers ­ come after the noun e.g. examination in progress…read more

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This is brilliant, thanks!



really clear and useful, thanks!

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