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1st law of thermodynamics ­ energy is neither created or
destroyed.
· Enthalpy change is the change in heat energy for a reaction at
constant pressure.
· Mean bond energies are the mean energy required to break
one mole of covalent bonds.
· Bond dissociation enthalpy is the enthalpy change for
breaking one mole of covalent bonds, which all species are in
gaseous form.
· Hess' Law states that the enthalpy change for a reaction is
independent of the route taken providing the condition are
the same.…read more

Slide 3

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Standard Enthalpy of Combustion ­ This is the enthalpy
change at constant pressure when one mole of a substance
burns completely in oxygen where all products and reactants
are in standard states under standard conditions.
· Standard Enthalpy of Formation ­ This is the enthalpy change
at constant pressure when one mole of a substance is formed
from its elements in their standard states under standard
conditions.
· Standard conditions: 298K and 100Kpa…read more

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Exothermic and Endothermic
Exothermic = -ve enthalpy change Endothermic = +ve enthalpy change
A = activation energy & bonds broken
B = bonds made
C = Enthalpy change…read more

Slide 5

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Working Out Enthalpy of formation
Hr
C + 2H2 CH4
O2 O2
H2 H1
Hr = H2 - H1 CO2 + 2H2O…read more

Slide 6

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Working Out Enthalpy using formation
data
Hr
6CO2 + 2H2O C6H12O6 + O2
H1 H2
6C + 9O2 + 16H2
Hr = H2 - H1…read more

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