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Chemistry Unit 2 Revision
Atomic Structure
In the nucleus of atoms there are protons and neutrons. Around the
nucleus there are electrons which have a negative charge. In the
periodic table, atoms are arranged in order of their atomic number.

The Arrangement of Electrons in Atoms
The electrons in an…

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Ionic Compounds
Ionic compounds have high melting points and boiling points because
of the strong electrostatic forces of attraction between oppositely
charged ions in the giant lattice. Ionic compounds will conduct
electricity when molten or in solution because the ions are able to
move freely.

Simple Molecules
Non-metals react to…

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Masses of Atoms and Moles
We measure the masses of atoms by comparing them to the mass of
one atom of carbon-12. The relative atomic mass of an element is
usually almost the same as its mass number. We calculate the relative
formula mass of a compound from the relative…

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Ammonia is an important chemical used for making fertilisers. The raw
materials are nitrogen from the air and hydrogen from natural gas.
These are reacted at about 450°C and 200 atmospheres pressure using
an iron catalyst. Ammonia is removed from the mixture before it can
break down into the reactants…

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A catalyst increases the rate of a chemical reaction. It does this by
reducing the activation energy needed for the reaction. This means
that more particles have enough energy to react.

Endothermic and Exothermic Reactions
Chemical reactions involve energy changes as bonds are made and
broken. When a chemical reaction…

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Changes at the Electrode
During electrolysis ions move towards the electrodes. At the cathode
(-) positively charged ions are reduced and gain electrons. At the anode
(+) negatively charged ions are oxidised and lose electrons. When
electrolysis is carried out in water, the less reactive element is usually
produced.

Electrolysing…

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Salts can be made by reacting acids with metals, when hydrogen gas is
formed along with the salt. They can also be made by reacting acids
with insoluble bases, when water is formed as well as the salt.

Making Salts from Solutions
We can make salts by reacting an acid…

Comments

Ruqayyah

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Thanks so much! They are really helpful! Was wondering if you had any for C1& 3 as well?

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