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Culturing Microbes
Microbes are grown on a small scale on
agar in Petri dishes.
Carbohydrate in the agar is their energy
·Sterilise inoculating
·Cover sterilising loop
in the bacteria
·Make zigzag patterns
on agar…read more

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To prepare uncontaminated cultures...
Petri dishes and agar must be sterilised before
Inoculating loops must be sterilised through
The lid must be held in place afterwards to not
let any microbes in or out.
Temperatures are limited in schools and colleges to about 25°
C, it would be dangerous to increase the temperature, as this
might cause the quick growth of dangerous pathogens. In
industry higher temperatures are used to promote growth.…read more

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Food production using yeast
·When oxygen is present, yeast cells
respire aerobically, and reproduce
·If there is no oxygen, then they will
respire anaerobically and produce
ethanol (alcohol). This process is
called fermentation.
·As a by-product, fermentation also
creates carbon dioxide (the bubbles in

Slide 5

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Beer Wine
Starch in barley Grapes' natural
grains used as sugars used as
carbohydrate energy carbohydrate energy
source. source.
Starch broken down
Sugars broken down
into sugars by
When sugars have
been fermented, Wine is often left to
hops is added for ferment for years.
flavour.…read more

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Food Production with
Bacteria are often used in the production of
cheeses and yoghurt.
Bacteria added to
warmed up milk
The lactose (the
sugar in the milk) is
fermented by the
Lactic acid causes
the milk to solidify
and form yoghurt.…read more

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An understandable and concise summing up of the key facts in the AQA unit on microbiology that includes some useful flow diagrams. It would be useful to add some diagrams of different biogas designs to this with a description of the advantages and disadvantages of each type as this a commonly asked  question.

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