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The Human Kidney
The kidneys main function is to filter blood, excreting
substances we do not need, and keeping those we do.
The renal artery (branching off from the aorta) brings
blood containing urea and other dissolved substances in
solution to the kidneys, and the renal vein (branching off
from the vena cava) takes the blood away again after
these substances have been removed.
The necessary glucose, ions, and water are reabsorbed.
Excess ions and all urea is dissolved in the remaining
water and expelled out of the body in the form of urine.
When sugar and ions are reabsorbed against the
concentration gradient, they are being absorbed by active
transport.…read more

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A dialysis machine does the same job as the kidneys,
and the blood flows through the partially permeable
membranes within it.
The fluid in the dialysis machine contains the same
concentration of ions and useful substances as the
patient's blood does, so they are not being filtered
out of the blood. Urea does get filtered out.
Dialysis restores the concentration of substances in
the blood back to normal, but it is ongoing, and not
just a one off event.…read more

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Kidney Transplants
For most people kidney transplants are better
options than dialysis, most kidneys come from
people who have just died.
The new kidney must be a good tissue match with
the receiver.…read more

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Immune System and Rejections
The immune system is likely to reject the new kidney
so precautions have to be made.
The patient's bone marrow would be irradiated to
stop white blood cell production (so they don't fight
the new kidney)
The recipient will have to continue to take
immunosuppressant drugs to suppress the immune
After the operation the patient will be kept in a clean
room (sterile room) to prevent any infections, which
would destroy the body.…read more

Slide 6

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Taken inspiration from the Nelson Thornes
"exclusively endorsed and approved by AQA"
No copyright infringement intended
I have paraphrased where I can
I highly advise to get this book, and doing your own
revision will be better than doing mine…read more

Slide 7

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Can you put a link to a Microsoft 2003 version of this please?

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