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What happens when electrical impulse reaches terminal button...
Synaptic vesicles containing neurotransmitter are stimulated to move to end
Vesicle merges with membrane, releasing neurotransmitter into the synaptic
Neurotransmitter binds with complimentary receptor site (lock and key
model) through diffusion
This stimulates the next neurone to produce a new action potential
The reuptake pump collects and `recycles' excess neurotransmitter, whilst an
enzyme breaks down any excess neurotransmitter in the synaptic gap. This
prevents over stimulation of receptor sites
Dopamine: affect emotional arousal, pleasure and voluntary movement. (Involved
in Parkinson's disease)
Serotonin: regulates sleep and wakefulness and aggressive behaviour, and is
involved in pain. Low levels of serotonin have been associated with aggressive
behaviour in males. It is also important in OCD.
Endorphins: collection of neurotransmitters that affect mood and reduce feelings
of pain. They are the body's natural `painkiller' chemical.
When SSRI drugs present (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors), the reuptake
of serotonin in the brain is blocked. This means more neurotransmitter is left in
the synaptic cleft, so the receptor sites are stimulated more- increase synaptic
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When a neuroleptic drug is present, the receptor sites are blocked, preventing
their stimulation so less action potential is passed on through the neurone.
When someone has an overdose of MAOIs (Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors) the
enzyme that normally breaks down neurotransmitters (Dopamine (DA), Serotonin
(5-HT) and Noradrenalin (NA)) is blocked. This means the receptor sites are
stimulated more- increase synaptic activity.…read more