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Module 1a ­ Biology ­ Human biology
You
sho
uld
kno
w
abo
ut
the
foll
owi
ng
fou
r
are
as:
1 Co-ordination and
control

The nervous system and the
hormone system co-ordinate your
body
The input…

Page 2

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This is where all your sensory
input and responses are
co-ordinated
The sensory neurones carry the
input impulses
The motor neurones carry
impulses which make you respond
A neurone is another name for a
nerve cell
The impulses…

Page 3

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5 More about co-ordination
and control....

In women, the menstrual cycle is
controlled by hormones. It lasts
about 28 days
Day 1 ­ 5 is the menstrual period;
ovulation happens around day 14.
The hormones are produced by…

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The disadvantage is that it is
very expensive and doesn't
always work

8 Our cells are very easily
damaged. They have to have a
constant environment where
temperature, water content, ion
concentrations and blood sugar
levels are all…

Page 5

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Our metabolic rate is the speed
at which our body does chemical
reactions. It is linked to how
much exercise we take and to
how much muscle and fat we
have. Our metabolic rate stays
high for a…

Page 6

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help to reduce cholesterol
levels
In some people, too much salt
may increase the risk of high
blood pressure
Fast food ( processed food)
often contains high levels of
fat and salt





12
Drug
abuse!





Some drugs can…

Page 7

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15 Tobacco smoke contains many
dangerous substances
Nicotine is the addictive
substance in tobacco smoke
Carcinogens in tobacco smoke
may cause cancer of different
organs
The link between smoking and
lung cancer has been agreed over
many years…

Page 8

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Bacteria and viruses may
reproduce rapidly inside
the body
They may make poisons
(toxins) which make us
feel ill.

Viruses are much much
smaller than bacteria; they
are not cells
They are just a protein
coat around some…

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Antibiotics can't kill viruses
which live and reproduce inside
our cells
It is hard to kill viruses
without killing our own cells
Many bacteria have developed
resistance to antibiotics.
This happens when some bacteria
mutate to become resistant…

Page 10

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It was given to many pregnant
women but it had not been
tested on pregnant women
Many women gave birth to babies
with severe limb abnormalities
The drug was banned
Recently Thalidomide has been
used successfully to treat…

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HELLO HAFSAH DO YOU HAVE A B1 b SECTION???

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