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Page 1

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Defending against infectious disease:

Pat
h ogens
are
microor
ganisms t
hat
cause
disease.
Pathogens
incl
ude bact
eri
a and
vir
uses.
Bact
e r
ia
rel
eases t
oxi
ns and
vir
uses damage
ou r
cel
ls.
Whit
e bl
ood cel
ls
can dest
roy
and…

Page 2

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The
body can
protect
i
tsel
f
against
pathogens i
n many di
ff
e r
ent
w ays.
The f
ir
st
defenc e
is
passive
immunity. Thi
s ai
ms
to st
op pathogens f
rom ent
e r
ing
the body.
The
bo dy'
s passi
ve…

Page 3

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l
ymphocyt
e r
eproduces
quickl
y,
and
makes
ma ny
copi
es of
t
he
anti
body
that
neut
ral
ise
the
pat
hogen.
Ant
ibodi
es
neu t
ral
ise
pat
hogens
in
a number
of
ways
:

t
hey
bind
to
pathogens
and damage or
dest
roy…

Page 4

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Bact
erial
st
rai
ns can devel
op resi
stance
to
anti
biot
ics.
Thi
s happens because
of
natur
al
select
ion.

I
n a
lar
g e
popu l
ati
on of
bact
e r
ia,
t
he r
e may be
some cel
ls
that
ar
e…

Page 5

Preview of page 5
pot
atoes,
past
a, A
source
of
energy f
or
other
l
if
e pr
ocesses.
Somet
imes
br
ead,
bananas, r
efer
red
to
as,
a car
bohydrat
e.
sugar
and
ri
ce



cheese,
but
ter
, Fa t
s ar
e needed
to
ma ke
cel
l
me…

Page 6

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ir
regul
ar
peri
ods i
n wome n

reduced
resi
stance
to
inf
ecti
on

defi
ci
ency di
seases

Def
ic
iency
diseases
incl
ude rickets,
w hi
ch af
fect
s pr
op er
gr
ow t
h of
t
he
skelet
on and i
s caused…

Page 7

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di
sease.
HDLs
are
oft
en
cal
led
`good'
chol
est
erol
because
they
hel
p t
o st
op
fat
bui
ldi
ng
up
in
the
ar
ter
ies
.

A
high
proport
ion
of
H DLs
to
LDL s
is
good
for
a
healt
hy heart
.
Mo…

Page 8

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was
modi
fi
e d
by
chemi
st
s i
nto
the
subst
ance
w e
cal
l
aspi
ri
n,
w hi
ch
is
less
ir
ri
tat
ing
to
the
stomach
t
han
sal
icyl
i
c aci
d.

New
me di
ca l
dr
ug s
have…

Page 9

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The al
cohol
in
alcohol
ic
dri
nks
such
as
w i
nes,
beer and
spi
ri
ts
is
ethanol.
I
t
is
a depr
essan t
.
Thi
s means
that
i
t
slows
d own
signal
s i
n
t
h e
nerves
and brai
n.
Small
amo…

Page 10

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User
s of
i
ll
egal
dr
ugs
may
tur
n t
o cr
ime
to
pay
for
t
hei
r
habi
t,
and
thi
s af
fect
s t
he
li
ves
of
other

peopl
e.



















Hormones:

Hormones ar
e chemical
subst
ances
that
hel
p t
o r…

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